Home
Search results “Rate determining step sn1 sn2 e1 e2”
Rate Law For SN1 SN2 E1 and E2 Reaction - Potential Energy Diagram & Mechanism
 
13:42
This chemistry video tutorial provides the rate law equation for SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 reactions. It also provides the mechanism as well as the potential energy diagrams that go along with it. The SN1 reaction is a first order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the substrate only. In this example, a solvolysis reaction was used which occurs in 3 steps. The SN2 reaction is a single step concerted reaction mechanism and it's a second order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the substrate and nucleophile. The E1 reaction is a first order elimination reaction where the rate depends on the substrate only. The E2 reaction is a second order elimination reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the base and the substrate.
SN1, SN2, E1, & E2 Reaction Mechanism Made Easy!
 
54:38
This video shows you an easy way to identify if a reaction will undergo an SN1, SN2, E1, or E2 mechanism. SN1 reactions generate a racemic mixture of stereoisomers due to the planar structure of its carbocation. Both SN1 and E1 reactions can rearrange by means of a hydride shift or a methyl shift due to the formation of carbocation intermediate. There are no rearrangements for an SN2 and E2 reaction mechanism. Those reactions are concerted meaning they occur simultaneously in 1 step. SN2 reactions proceed with inversion of stereochemistry and E2 reactions proceed via an anti-coplanar transition state which means that the hydrogen that you remove must be opposite to the bromine before you can create an alkene. SN2 reactions prefer methyl & primary substrates. SN1 & E1 reactions prefer secondary and tertiary substrates. E2 requires the use of a strong base. Polar Protic Solvents favor SN1/E1 reactions because they can stabilize the carbocation intermediate by solvation. They're not good for SN2 reactions because they solvate/stabilize the nucleophile which affects the rate of an SN2 reactions (Rate = K[Substrate][Nucleophile]). SN1 reactions are not affected by the concentration or strength of the nucleophile due to the equation Rate = K[Substrate]. Polar aprotic solvents work well for an SN2 reaction because they do not solvate the nucleophile allowing to react freely with the substrate. Crown ethers enhance the strength of the nucleophile because they solvate the cation such as K+ allowing the nucleophile such as F- to be free to react. I hope these extra notes help :) New SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Video - Updated! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKJ0z7N6W5w Organic Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5vjCqnVb6s&index=1&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BU3gxU8RwqkEET2ilZ80Znj Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Mechanisms and the rate-determining step | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
08:42
An introduction to mechanisms and the rate determining step. Example of finding rate law of multistep reaction with initial slow step. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/arrhenius-equation/v/catalysts?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/arrhenius-equation/v/elementary-rate-laws?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Rates with SN1 and SN2
 
02:05
This video follows directly on from the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms video with SRA. It links how the rate determining step changes with each mechanism and how this can be used to demonstrate the fact that there are different mechanisms
Views: 1366 Beauchamp Chemistry
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanism, Organic Chemistry
 
17:54
This organic chemistry video tutorial explains how nucleophilic substitution reactions work. It focuses on the SN1 and Sn2 reaction mechanism and it provides plenty of examples and practice problems. The Sn2 reaction is a second order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate is dependent on the concentration of the substrate / alkyl halide and the nucleophile. SN2 reactions occur with inversion of configuration and work well with methyl and primary substrates. It's a concerted reaction mechanism that occurs in a single step. The rate law for the SN1 reaction is given as well. SN1 reactions proceed via a carbocation intermediate and carbocation rearrangements such as the hydride shift and the methyl shift are possible. SN1 reactions work well with tertiary alkyl halide substrates due to carbocation stability. Carbocations are stabilized by means of hyperconjugation and the inductive effect. SN1 reactions will produce an unequal racemic mixture. The stereochemistry of both reaction mechanisms are discussed in detail. SN1 reactions work well with polar protic solvents but SN2 reactions work better in polar aprotic solvents. Solvolysis reactions are sn1 reactions where the nucleophile is the same as the solvent.
SN1 Reactions | University Of Surrey
 
02:25
Rate determining step - SN1 reactions. A-Level Chemistry teaching/revision resource
Views: 143751 University of Surrey
SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reaction Mechanism Overview
 
07:29
http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reactions Mechanism Overview Need help with Orgo? Download my free guide ’10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry’ HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video will give you a quick overview/review of the individual reactions and mechanisms of SN1, SN2, E1, & E2 to prepare you for the detailed tutorials on how to logically choose between these reactions. This is great to watch as an overview before diving in, review in daily study, or review before quizzes/exams. Links & Resources Mentioned In This Video: Find the entire Tutorial Series + Try the Practice Quiz HERE: http://Leah4Sci.com/substitution-elimination Catch the entire Nucleophilic Substitution and Beta Elimination Video Tutorials in Organic Chemistry Series, along with practice quiz on my website at http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4Sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ : https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 140178 Leah4sci
Choosing SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reaction Mechanism Given Reactant and Product
 
12:12
http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: Choosing SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reaction Mechanism Given Reactant & Product Need help with Orgo? Download my free guide ’10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry’ HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video shows you how to choose between SN1 SN2 E1 E2 when given complete reaction conditions including starting molecule, reagents and products. You'll also see the step by step mechanism for what appears to be a tricky intermediate transition. This question came from a student's exam where over 100 students failed to get full credit. Links & Resources Mentioned In This Video: Understand Carbocation Stability and Ranking in this Tutorial Here: http://leah4sci.com/carbocation-stability-and-ranking/ Catch the entire Nucleophilic Substitution and Beta Elimination Tutorial Series along with the FREE practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website at http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4Sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ : https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 56304 Leah4sci
Nucleophiles, Electrophiles, Leaving Groups, and the SN2 Reaction
 
06:05
This is it! The start of the very scary reaction mechanisms! Take it easy, chief. First we will define nucleophiles, electrophiles, and leaving groups. Then, we will examine the mechanism, transition state, and stereospecificity of the SN2 reaction. Push those electrons! Learn Organic Chemistry the easy way with Professor Dave! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 120123 Professor Dave Explains
Simply Mechanisms 5: SN1. Reaction of 2-bromo-2-methylpropane with aqueous KOH.
 
08:21
Find an accompanying mindmap here: http://franklychemistry.co.uk/simply_mechanisms/9_Simply_Mechanisms5_Haloalkanes_SN1.pdf This looks at the mechanism of the reaction of 2-bromo-2-methylpropane with aqueous hydroxide ions. Known as SN1 for short, this stands for substitution nucleophilic first order. 2-bromo-2-methylpropane is a tertiary haloalkane. They undergo SN1 reactions with aqueous hydroxides, while primary haloalkanes undergo SN2 reactions. In SN1 only the haloalkane molecule is involved in the slow rate-determining step. It is known as a unimolecular reaction, where the 1 comes from in SN1. In the SN2 mechanism with primary haloalkanes the haloalkane molecule and hydoxides ion are both involved in the slow step. It is a bimolecular reaction. This is where the 2 comes from in SN2.
Views: 6734 FranklyChemistry
SN1 Reaction
 
03:30
Why is SN2 a one-step reaction and SN1 a two-step reaction! Argh! Just listen to Dave, he'll tell you about the mechanism, intermediate, and lack of stereospecificity for the SN1 reaction. Look out for racemic mixtures! Learn Organic Chemistry the easy way with Professor Dave! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
SN2 Reactions | University Of Surrey
 
02:00
Rate determining step - SN2 reactions. A-Level Chemistry teaching/revision resource
Views: 116356 University of Surrey
E2 Reaction
 
03:29
Enough with substitutions, let's look at eliminations. Bring on the pi bonds! The E2 reaction is a very common one that we will have to understand in mechanism, transition state, and product distribution. Learn Organic Chemistry the easy way with Professor Dave! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
20.1 SN1 mechanism (HL)
 
02:45
Understandings: SN1 represents a nucleophilic unimolecular substitution reaction. SN1 involves a carbocation intermediate. For tertiary halogenoalkanes the predominant mechanism is SN1 The rate determining step (slow step) in an SN1 reaction depends only on the concentration of the halogenoalkane, rate = k[halogenoalkane]. SN1 reactions are best conducted using protic, polar solvents. Applications and skills: Deduction of the mechanism of the nucleophilic substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes with aqueous sodium hydroxide in terms of SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Outline of the difference between protic and aprotic solvents.
Views: 6875 Mike Sugiyama Jones
SN2 vs SN1 Chart - Examples & Practice Problems
 
15:46
SN2 vs SN1 Chart - This video discusses the difference between an SN2 and SN1 reaction. This video provides the mechanism as well as plenty of practice problems. SN2 reactions prefer polar aprotic solvents such as crown ethers, acetone, DMF, and HMPA while SN1 reactions prefer polar protic solvents like H2O, CH3OH, or CH3CH2OH. tertiary substrates or alkyl halides work best for an SN1 reaction but primary or methyl substrates work better for an SN2 reaction. The SN2 is a one step concerted reaction mechanism process but the SN1 reaction may occur in 2 or 3 steps depending on the nucleophile chosen. Carbocation rearrangements may occur for an SN1 reaction but for an SN2 mechanism. SN2 reactions proceed with inversion of stereochemistry but SN1 reactions provides an unequal racemic mixture of products which is both inversion and retention.
E2 vs. E1 - Mechanism
 
10:30
For more go to http://masterorganicchemistry.com The E1 and E2 reactions. Comparison of mechanisms. Key points to remember for each.
Views: 134657 Master Organic Chemistry
SN1 Reaction Mechanism
 
07:36
SN1 Reaction involves: * Leaving Group "falls off" of the secondary/tertiary carbon * Trigonal Planar carbocation intermediate * Nucleophile attacks and bonds. You get a 50/50 mix of enantiomers (if you care) It's called SN1 because it's a Nucleophilic Substitution and it's unimolecular - the first step (of two) involves ONE chemical breaking apart into two. Check me out: http://www.chemistnate.com
Views: 1724 chemistNATE
SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reactions Multiple Choice Practice Test Exam Review  Problems
 
48:49
This organic chemistry video tutorial focuses on SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 reactions. It is presented as a multiple choice practice exam with answers / solutions. There's plenty of examples and about 75 practice problems in this video. Here's the other 60 out of 76 questions: https://vimeo.com/ondemand/sn2sn1e2e1reactions Here's a list of topics: 1. How To Find The Major Product of a Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reaction 2. How To Identify The Compound That Will Undergo Solvolysis 3. How To Identify The Compound That Will Undergo a SN2 Reaction Most Rapidly 4. Identifying The Strongest Nucleophile In a Polar Protic Solvent 5. Rate Law Expression For an E1 Reaction Mechanism 6. Racemic Mixture of SN1 Reactions & Inversion of Configuration of SN2 Reactions 7. Polar Aprotic Solvents - HMPA, Crown Ethers, Acetone, Acetonitrile, DMSO, & DMF 8. Bulky Bases, t-buok or Potassium Tert-Butoxide - Hoffman vs Zaitsev Product 9. Acid Catalyzed E1 Dehydration Reaction of Alcohols Using H2SO4 and H3PO4 10. How To List The Following Carbocations In Order of Decreasing Stability 11. SN2 Reaction Rate - Substrate vs Nucleophile 12. SN1 & SN2 Reactions With Chlorocyclohexane in a Chair Conformation 13. Rate of Reaction vs Concentration 14. How To Identify The Most Stable Alkene 15. The Effect of Doubling The Concentration of The Subtrate and Nucleophile on the Rate of the Reaction 16. How To Identify The Best Leaving Group 17. 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, vs 18-crown-6 ethers - Li+, Na+, and K+ 18. Carbocation Rearrangements - Hydride Shift, Methyl Shift, & Ring Expansion 19. The Effect of a Sterically Hindered Base on the Yield of an E2 Reaction 20. The Effect of a Small Nucleophile on the Yield of a SN2 Reaction 21. SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 Energy Diagrams - Exothermic vs Endothermic Situations 22. Carbocation Stabilization and Solvating By a Polar Protic Solvent 23. SN2 Reactions and Fischer Projections 24. Percent H2O, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH Solvent Mixtures - Polarity vs Dielectric Constant 25. E2 Reaction & Conjugation 26. Cis vs Trans Isomer Product of an E2 Reaction 27. SN2 Transition State 28. Carbocation Stability - Hyperconjugation and the Inductive Effect 29. SN2, SN1, E2, & E1 Mechanism - Stereoselective / Stereospecific or Regioselective / Regiospecific ? 30. Syn vs Anti Elimination - Front Side Attack vs Back Side Attack & Eclipsed vs Staggered Conformation 31. E & Z Isomers of an E2 Reaction 32. E2 Stereochemistry - Newman and Fischer Projections 33. SN2 Double Inversion Reaction
Organic Chemistry - Reaction Mechanisms
 
34:45
This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into reaction mechanisms. It explains the four fundamental reactions such as addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, and rearrangements. Here is a list of topics: 1. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes 2. Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Ketones 3. Carbocation Rearrangements and Ring Expansion Examples 4. SN2 SN1 E1 and E2 Reaction Mechanisms 5. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions 6. Elimination Reactions 7. E1CB Reaction 8. Free Radical Reactions - Radical Substitution Mechanism 9. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 10. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 11. Addition Elimination Reaction Mechanism 12. Elimination Addition Reaction Mechanism Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Comparing E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions
 
12:26
Comparing E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=12Rvts2NR7M
Views: 894138 Khan Academy
Elimination reaction E1 and E2
 
08:58
Elimination reaction E1 and E2 An elimination reaction is a type of reaction in which two atoms or groups are removed from a molecule in either one or two-step mechanism . The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction, and the two-step mechanism is known as the E1 reaction. E1 mechanism or unimolecular elimination mechanism : In E1 mechanism the reaction takes place in two steps i.e, ionization and deprotonation. In first step heterolytic fission of alkyl halide takes place and alkyl carbonium ion is formed .The rate of reaction is influenced only by the concentration of the alkyl halide because carbocation or carbonium ion formation is the slowest step. Therefore it is rate determining step & reaction is unimolecular. E2 Mechanism or Bimolecular elimination mechanism: E2 stands for bimolecular elimination. The reaction involves a one-step mechanism in which carbon-hydrogen and carbon-halogen bonds break to form a double bond (C=C means pi bond) Related Article: Elimination reaction (E1 and E2) https://chemistryonline.guru/elimination-reaction/ Like our Facebook page for updates and new tutorials at: https://www.facebook.com/chemistryonline.guru/ Our website: https://chemistryonline.guru
Views: 6664 Chemistry Online Guru
Affecting Factors rate of SN1 Reaction | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
 
05:22
Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- The strength of the nucleophile does not affect the reaction rate of SN1 because, as stated above, the nucleophile is not involved in the rate-determining step. However, if you have more than one nucleophile competing to bond to the carbocation, the strengths and concentrations of those nucleophiles affects the distribution of products that you will get. For example, if you have (CH3)3CCl reacting in water and formic acid where the water and formic acid are competing nucleophiles, you will get two different products: (CH3)3COH and (CH3)3COCOH. The relative yields of these products depend on the concentrations and relative reactivities of the nucleophiles An SN1 reaction speeds up with a good leaving group. This is because the leaving group is involved in the rate-determining step. A good leaving group wants to leave so it breaks the C-Leaving Group bond faster. Once the bond breaks, the carbocation is formed and the faster the carbocation is formed, the faster the nucleophile can come in and the faster the reaction will be completed. A good leaving group is a weak base because weak bases can hold the charge. They're happy to leave with both electrons and in order for the leaving group to leave, it needs to be able to accept electrons. Strong bases, on the other hand, donate electrons which is why they can't be good leaving groups. As you go from left to right on the periodic table, electron donating ability decreases and thus ability to be a good leaving group increases. Halides are an example of a good leaving group whos leaving-group ability increases as you go down the column. Polar protic solvents have a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom so the hydrogen is highly polarized. Polar aprotic solvents have a dipole moment, but their hydrogen is not highly polarized. Polar aprotic solvents are not used in SN1 reactions because some of them can react with the carbocation intermediate and give you an unwanted product. Rather, polar protic solvents are preferred.
Views: 3058 CHEMISTRY JEE \ NEET
SN1 SN2 E1 E2 reactions: secondary alkyl halides
 
10:56
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=fwSGKbmuHFI
SN1 Reaction - STEP BY STEP (English subtitles)
 
03:33
Full SN1 reaction described in a fast, simple and complete way.
Views: 537 EASY LEARNING
Comparing the [SN1] and [SN2] Substitution Pathways
 
05:42
http://csi.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de/ak/immel/misc/oc-scripts/animations.html?structure=sn2 This webcast gives a comparison of the two pathways for substitution at sp3 carbon. The rate-determining step and corresponding transition states are compared, along with the minimum energy pathways on a reaction coordinate diagram.
Views: 10291 jeffrey Moore
Reaction Energy Diagram - SN1
 
08:15
The reaction energy diagram for the SN1 reaction, from starting materials through the intermediate carbocation to the final substitution product. How to identify transition states, intermediates, and activation energies. From MasterOrganicChemistry.com [http://masterorganicchemistry.com]
SN1 & SN2 - How to Determine ? Must for Class 12th Science Student.
 
16:08
Much awaited "Capsule Course" . Most important Questions and Answers with solution class 12 board exams . http://www.chemistryvideolecture.com/services/ Subscribe followings for regular updates - Our You Tube channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0KVSqfFXm1y21qeL9-2S9Q facebook - https://www.facebook.com/pradeepsharma1010 Facebook page - https://www.facebook.com/PICSedusolutions/?ref=bookmarks website - https://picsinstitute.com/ PICS INSTITUTE provides Class room programme for IIT-JEE | AIPMT | CBSE \ XI | XII . PICS INSTITUTE provides #Free education for the subject #Chemistry for #NTSE ,#NSTSE,#KVPY, #Science Olympiad and School exams etc. #Students can get exercise based upon this law by subscribing our you tube channel and sending request in comment section.
Views: 124892 Pradeep Sharma
E1  Reaction Mechanism
 
20:17
E1 is a model to explain a particular type of chemical elimination reaction. E1 stands for unimolecular elimination and has the following specificities. It is a two-step process of elimination: ionization and deprotonation. Ionization: the carbon-halogen bond breaks to give a carbocation intermediate. Deprotonation of the carbocation. E1 typically takes place with tertiary alkyl halides, but is possible with some secondary alkyl halides. The reaction rate is influenced only by the concentration of the alkyl halide because carbocation formation is the slowest step aka rate-determining step. Therefore first-order kinetics apply (unimolecular). Reaction usually occurs in complete absence of base or presence of only a weak base (acidic conditions and high temperature). E1 reactions are in competition with SN1 reactions because they share a common carbocationic intermediate. A secondary deuterium isotope effect of slightly larger than 1 is observed
Views: 418 vishwanathchemistry
E1 reactions | Substitution and elimination reactions | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
09:22
E1 Elimination Reactions. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/elimination-reactions-tutorial/v/zaitsev-s-rule?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/elimination-reactions-tutorial/v/e2-reactions?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 555564 Khan Academy
Potential Energy Diagrams - Chemistry - Catalyst, Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions
 
11:32
This chemistry video tutorial focuses on potential energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions. It also shows the effect of a catalyst on the forward and reverse activation energy. It describes the relationship of the enthalpy of a reaction with the potential energy difference of the reactants and products. It also shows you how to identify the transition state or activated complex as well as any intermediates. This video shows you how to draw a 2 step PE diagram and a 3 step potential energy diagram. In addition, it shows you how to identify the slow step or the rate determining step.
Substitution Nucleophilic Reaction-SN1 reaction
 
19:24
The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular.Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940. This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism.
Views: 778 PharmaToppers
Simply Mechanisms 4a: SN2. Reaction of bromoethane with aqueous KOH
 
05:26
Find an accompanying mindmap here: http://franklychemistry.co.uk/simply_mechanisms/6_Simply_Mechanisms4a_Haloalkanes_AqKOH.pdf This looks at the mechanism of the reaction of bromoethane with aqueous hydroxide ions. Known as SN2 for short, this stands for substitution nucleophilic second order. Bromoethane is a primary haloalkane. They undergo SN2 reactions with aqueous hydroxides, while tertiary haloalkanes undergo SN1 reactions. In SN2 both the haloalkane molecule and aqueous hydroxide ions are involved in the slow rate-determining step. It is known as a bimolecular reaction, where is where the 2 comes from in SN2. In the SN1 mechanism with tertiary haloalkanes only the haloalkane molecule is involved in the slow step. It is a unimolecular reaction. This is where the 1 comes from in SN1. In that case the aqueous hydroxide ions only get involved in the second (fast) step.
Views: 2955 FranklyChemistry
SN1 reaction, SN1 nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism Unimolecular Nucleophilic-1
 
11:54
http://www.educationstudio.in/ provides IIT-JEE video lectures, sn1 Organic chemistry: SN1 mechanism Nucleophilic substitution, SN1 mechanism Reaction, SN1 Mechanism reactions are very important reaction of organic chemistry. Substitution reactions mean the substitution of an atom or group with another atom or group. Substitution Reactions are classified as Nucleophilic substitution (SN), Electrophilic substitution and Free Radical substitution. Nucleophilic Substitution (SN) Reactions of organic compounds like alkyl halides and alcohols in organic chemistry proceed through various Nucleophilic Substitution mechanisms. The common Mechanisms in Nucleophilic substitution reactions of organic compounds are Unimolecular ( SN1 ) Substitution mechanism, Bimolecular (SN2 ) Substitution mechanism and AN+DN Mechanism ( Attack of Nucleophile followed by Departure of Nucleophile). Unimolecular (SN1 ) Nucleophilic substitution reaction of Organic compounds in chemistry can undergo Rearrangement reaction during SN1 i.e. unimolecular Nucleophilic substitution mechanism that involves organic intermediates like carbocation. These organic SN1 elimination reactions in chemistry may include ring expansion and ring contractions also. The mechanism of SN1 Nucleophilic substitution reactions involve elimination of leaving group and then attack of Nucleophile in separate steps. These Nucleophilic substitution reactions may also involve rearrangement reactions as additional step shifting of a group in carbocation and some other organic intermediates. The major product of these elimination reactions are generally based on the slow and rate determining step. The more stable is the carbocation formed in rds (rate determining atep) of unimolecular ( SN1 ) Nucleophilic substitution mechanism faster will be unimolecular Nucleophilic substitution reaction. The major organic product of Unimolecular Nucleophilic substitution SN1 Mechanism reactions also depend on the stability of carbocation intermediate formed in rate determining step (rds) of unimolecular Nucleophilic substitution mechanism. Bimolecular Nucleophilic substitution (SN 2) mechanism is another mechanism in which both, removal of leaving group and the attack of Nu-) occur in single step reaction. Bimolecular Nucleophilic substitution mechanism (SN 2) is stereospecific and the attacking nucleophile always attacks from opposite side of leaving group. SN2 Nucleophilic substitution mechanism generally results in inversion of configuration called Walden inversion. In Organic chemistry we find several organic reactions involving rearrangement and shifting within the organic molecule. Rearrangement reaction is the most important organic reaction in organic chemistry. Organic reactions cannot be understood without understanding of rearrangement reactions. However, if a scholar of organic chemistry has understood organic reaction mechanism of rearrangement reactions, he/she will be in better position to grasp the general organic reaction mechanisms. Rearrangement reaction mechanism is the most wonderful tool in studying all other organic chemistry reactions. In any competitive exam involving Chemistry like Olympiad, Sat, IIT, AIEEE and CBSE, organic chemistry is the most scoring part of chemistry. Unimolecular Nucleophilic substitution mechanism is observed in most solvolysis reactions of alkyl halides and acid catalyzed nucleophilic substitution on alcohols. Stereochemistry of SN1.
Views: 4905 Manoj Tanwar
Predict The Compound In Each Pair That Will Undergo the SN2 Reaction Faster
 
05:09
This video shows you how to select the compound that will undergo an SN2 reaction at a faster rate.
Nucleophilic Substitution, Halogenoalkane Mechanism - Organic Chem
 
15:32
In this video we want to describe the nucleophilic substitution mechanism of halogenoalkanes or alkylhalides. There are 2 different pathways for nucleophilic substitution. SN1 Mechanism SN1 mechanism is a two step reaction. In the first step, which is the slow step, the C-Cl bond will break by itself and both electrons will go to Cl. A carbocation intermediate and Cl- ion will be formed. In the second step, which is the fast step, OH- will attack the carbocation forming the alcohol product. Based on the mechanism, we can deduce the rate equation. In the slow step, there is only one halogenoalkane, hence the rate is first order with respect to halogenoalkane and zero order with respect to hydroxide. Therefore the rate equation will be: rate = k[RX] The overall order is one, hence we call this the SN1 mechanism. Tertiary halides will favour SN1 as more electron donating alkyl groups can stabilise the carbocation intermediate to a greater extent. Therefore the carbocation is more likely formed, and this in turn favours SN1 mechanism. SN2 Mechanism SN2 mechanism is a one step reaction. The OH- nucleophile will attack the carbon from directly behind the C-Cl bond. In this step the C-O bond is formed while the C-Cl bond is broken. Usually in schools we are required to draw the transition state, which emphasises that the OH, C and Cl groups are along the same axis. Since this is the only step in SN2, it must be the rate determining step. One halogenoalkane and one OH- are involved, hence the rate is first order with respect to both halogenoalkane and OH-. Therefore the rate equation will be: rate = k[RX][OH-] The overall order is two, hence we call this the SN2 mechanism. Primary halides will favour SN2 as there are less bulky alkyl groups. This means that the nucleophilic attack from directly behind the C-X bond will experience less steric hinderance. This makes the back door attack occur more readily and hence favours SN2 mechanism. For the detailed step-by-step discussion on how to draw both SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, check out this video! Topic: Halogenoalkane, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore Found this video useful? Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends! SUBSCRIBE to my YouTube Channel for new A Level Chemistry video lessons every week at https://www.youtube.com/ChemistryGuru Any feedback, comments or questions to clarify? Suggestions for new video lessons? Drop them in the COMMENTS Section, I would love to hear from you! Need an experienced A Level Chemistry tutor to boost your grades? Check out the SEVEN reasons why Chemistry Guru can provide the best A Level Chemistry Tuition for you: WEBSITE: https://chemistryguru.com.sg/ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch my latest video: "Determine Limiting Reagent" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdJsGEDMPOk -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
SN1 Reaction Of Alkyl Halide | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
 
06:57
Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular.[1][2] Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary and secondary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940.[3] This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism.this type of mechanism involves two steps the first step is the reversible ionization of Alkyl halide in the presence of aqueous acetone or an aqueous ethyl alcohol this step provides a carbocation as an intermediate in second step this carbocation is attacked by the nucleophile to give the product. With secondary and tertiary alkyl halides, SN1 and E1 occur in protic solvents with weakly basic nucleophiles. The reactions occur more easily with tertiary alkyl halides, if the nucleophile is not a strong base. The SN1 mechanism is always in competition with E1 because both occur under the same reaction conditions. These conditions are as follows: the alkyl halide is secondary and tertiary (especially); the solvent is protic, to stabilize the intermediate stage (consisting of the carbocation and departed leaving group); and the nucleophile is a weak base. With a strong base, remember that E2, bimolecular elimination is favored, not SN1 or E1 (with both secondary and tertiary alkyl halides). The SN1 mechanism, because it proceeds through a trigonal planar carbocation intermediate, will not lead to a product that is composed of pure enantiomer, as would happen if only SN2 occurred. Although the nucleophile prefers the side of the carbocation opposite the leaving group, attack can occur onto either face of the carbocation, and also rearrangement can occur in the carbocation intermediate.
Views: 1363 CHEMISTRY JEE \ NEET
what conditions favor Sn2 Reactions?
 
04:10
In this video-tutorial the experimental conditions that favor Sn2 over Sn1 reactions are discussed. The main topics covered in this video-tutorial are the following: Conditions that favor SN2 over SN1 reactions Differences between SN2 and SN1 reactions How to predict the products of nucleophilic substitution reactions How to predict the stereochemistry of the products of nucleophilic substitution reactions Increasing the concentration of the nucleophile favors Sn2 over Sn1 reactions since Sn2 are bimolecular. As the concentration of the nucleophile increases the SN2 reaction becomes faster and predominates. Increasing the reactivity of the nucleophile -small, charged and basic nucleophiles- increase the rates of Sn2 reactions. The rate-determining step – slow step- is the attack of the nucleophile. The more reactive the nucleophile the faster the SN2 reaction. Polar Aprotic solvents favour SN2 reactions since they solvate the cation and make the nucleophile more available to react. Subsribe to Chemistry_Net: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRHkadk8a3zbg7RsKYwcuHw?view_as=public Please share this video: https://youtu.be/prguSDSYLhE For more info please see: http://chem-net.blogspot.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN2_reaction
Views: 201 Chemistry_Net
Organic Chemistry: E1 Reaction with Alkyl Halides & Reaction Coordinate
 
00:58
The E1 reaction with an alkyl halide occurs in two steps. In the first step, only the alkyl halide reacts. This step is the rate determining (or slow) step and involves dissociation of halide to form a carbocation intermediate. A carbocation is high in potential energy so its formation is slow. The second step, the loss of a proton from a carbon adjacent to the carbocation gives an alkene. This is a fast step since the high energy carbocation is converted to a stable alkene. In the iPhone app "Tap OChem" more details for the E1 and many more reactions (over 60 animations and more in future updates) are discussed. A list of the animations that are included in the iPhone app are listed at www.TapOChem.com. The App may be purchased at the Apple App Store.
Views: 4798 Tap OChem
SN1 Reaction and Mechanism
 
04:43
It is a Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction. it follows first order rate kinetics. Alkyl halides shows this type of Reaction. It is two step reaction. Product form is with 50% inversion of configuration. Eg. When tert. Butyl Bromide treated with NaOH it forms tert. Butyl Alcohol.
Views: 1042 Professor Beubenz
Sn1 and Sn2: leaving group
 
06:53
Using pKa table to determine leaving group ability for Sn1 and Sn2 reactions.
PCAT Organic Chemistry Review Study Guide
 
02:56:09
This video tutorial focuses on the organic chemistry section of the PCAT. It provides a nice review of the first two semesters of organic chemistry. Here is a list of topics: 1. Nomenclature and Functional Groups 2. Hybridization, Bond Angle, and Molecular Geometry 3. Sigma and Pi Bonds, Bond Strength vs Length 4. Acids and Bases Periodic Trend - pKa 5. Resonance Structures - Curve Arrow Notation 6. Newman Projections of Butane - Gauche, Anti, Staggered, Eclipse 7. Conformations of Cyclohexane - Chair, Half Chair, Twist Boat 8. Torsional vs Steric Strain and 1,3 Diaxial Interactions 9. Potential Energy Diagrams - Kinetics and Rate Law 10. Catalyst, Activation Energy, Rate Determining Step 11. Initiation, Propagation, and Termination 12. Bromination vs Chlorination Selective vs Nonselective Reactions 13. Stereochemistry - Enantiomers, Diastereomers, and Meso Compounds - R / S Configuration, Chirality and Optical Activity 14. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes 15. Acid Catalyzed Hydration, Hydroboration Oxidation, Oxymercuration Demercuration, and Ozonolysis 16. SN2, SN1, E1, and E2 reaction mechanism 17. Polar protic vs aprotic solvents - Nucleophiles and Leaving Groups 18. Inversion of Configuration vs Racemic Mixture 19. Oxidation and Reduction Reaction of Alcohols 20. Grignard & Gilman Reagents, DIBAH and Organolithium reagents 21. conjugate addition - 1,3 butadiene - Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Product 22. Diels Alder Reaction - Examples and Practice Problems 23. Acid Catalyzed Cleavage of Ethers and Epoxides 24. Nucleophilic Addition of Carbonyl Compounds - Aldehydes and Ketones 25. Enol and Enolate Reactions - Alpha Hydrogen Substitution 26. Wittig Reaction, HVZ Reaction, Haloform Reaction 27. Iodoform Test - Methyl Ketones 28. Tollen's Reagent Test for Aldehydes 29. Imine vs Enamine - Primary and Secondary Amines 30. Gabriel Synthesis Reaction 31. Hoffman vs Curtius Rearrangement Reactions 32. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Review 33. Benzene Reactions - Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 34. Nitration, Sulfonation, Chlorination, Bromination, Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation Reactions 35. Side Chain Reactions of Benzene 36. Benzyne Intermediate vs Meisenheimer Complex 37. Aldol Condensation Reaction 38. Claisen Ester Reaction 39. Acetoacetic and Malonic ester Reaction Mechanism 40. Michael Reaction 41. Robinson Annulation Reaction Mechanism
SN1, SN2, SNi Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions and Differences || REACTION MECHANISM ▶️ 3
 
26:53
🙏 Please 👉SUBSCRIBE FREE 👍 & 🔔 Dr M V Chary ________ Please SUBSCRIBE Venus Academy for FREE: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW3eA2uybXR_3tWVX7vsEBQ/featured; --------------------- Next Ch2-P4/4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lXhaodTWyM&t=1148s; Grignard Reaction - Addition Reactions - Elimination Reactions - Pericyclic Reactions - Ch 2 - P4/4 --------------------- Chapter-I: Structure of Organic Molecules 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - How to know SP, SP2, SP3 Hybridization – Chapter 1 – Part 1 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckUfVYyvnxQ 2. How Bond Length is Affected by Electronegativity and Hybridization - 5 Easy Tricks – Chapter 1- Part 2 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hb6bipo172Y 3. How SP, SP2, SP3 Hybridization affects - Bond angle and bond energy - 5 Easy Tips - Chapter 1 – Part 3 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swUbaArekK8 --------------------- Chapter-II: Reaction Mechanism and Reactivity of Organic Molecules. 4. What and How Formed Electrophiles and Nucleophiles - Reagents in Organic Synthesis- Chapter 2 - Part 1 of 4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYFHQ6NspDA 5. Friedel Crafts alkylation, acylation - Nitration - Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution -Chapter 2 - Part 2 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lK1cEhzIoyk 6. What are the Differences of SN1 vs SN2 - Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Mechanism – Chapter 2 – Part 3 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-3RL3Wk69U 7. Grignard Reaction - Addition Reactions - Elimination Reactions - Pericyclic Reactions – Chapter 2 – Part 4 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lXhaodTWyM --------------------- Chapter-III: Electronic Displacement 8. How Acidity and Basicity Affected by Inductive Effect - Interview Organic Chemistry –Chapter 3 – Part 1 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NdAFozMM38 9. Mesomeric Effect | Why Allylic Carbocation More Stable than Alkyl | Chapter 3 - Part 2 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_3aZlLfO1g 10. Hyperconjugation | Keto Enol Tautomerism | Interview Organic Chemistry Tips | Chapter 3 - Part 3 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzAGGNxWu4c --------------------- Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1 (Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - SN2 Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - SNi Intramolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - Reaction Mechanism and Reactivity of Organic Molecules - Chapter 2 - Part 3 of 4. 5 - Questions? And 12 Differences of SN1 and SN2 are Answered - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1, SN2 and SNi – Interview Organic Chemistry. 1. Question: What is and what happens in SN1 Reaction Mechanism and how to write arrow mark? Answer: SN1 – Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction mechanism involves 2 stages and rate of the reaction depends on concentration of Reactant and gives Racemic mixture. In Nucleophilic Substitution reactions arrow mark must be shown from reagent nucelophile to reactant. 2. Question: What is and what happens in SN2 Reaction Mechanism? Answers: SN2 – Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction mechanism involves only 1 stage and rate of the reaction depends on concentration of Reactant and Reagent and gives inversion of configuration. 3. Question: What is and what happens in SNi Reaction Mechanism? Answer: SNi – Intra-molecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction results retention of configuration. 4. Question: What happens to stereo isomers R and S in SN1, SN2 and SNi type of reactions? Answer: 1. in SN1 reaction Racemisation takes place and - R isomer - gives - R + S racemic mixture. 2. In SN2 reaction Walden Inversion takes place - R isomer - gives - S isomer -Walden inversion . 3. In SNi reaction retention of configuration takes place - R isomer - gives - R isomer retention of configuration. 5. Question: What are differences between SN1 and SN2 reactions? Answer: There are mainly 12 differences are observed between SN1 and SN2 , they are: SN1 SN2 1. Takes place in tertiary alkyl halides 1. Primary alkyl halide 2. Two steps 2. Only one step 3. 1st slow and rate determining step 3. Only one step 4. Rate is α to concentration of alkyl halide 4. Rate is α to concentration of alkyl halide × alkali 5. Unimolecular 5. Bimolecular 6. Non-concerted 6. Concerted 7. Independent of concentration of alkali 7. Dependent on concentration of both 8. Carbo-cation intermediate is formed 8. Takes place via only transition state 9. Racemic mixture is formed provided reactant is chiral 9. Walden inversion takes place provided reactant is chiral 10. Favorable in protic solvents such as water, formic acid 10. Favorable in aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sufoxide, dimethylformamide, etc. 11. Order of reactivity: tertiary secondary primary 11. Order of reactivity: primary secondary tertiary 12. Rearrangement may takes place 12. No rearrangement takes place
Views: 408 Venus Academy
Simply Mechanisms 4c: SN2. Reaction of bromoethane with NH3
 
05:15
Find an accompanying mindmap here: http://franklychemistry.co.uk/simply_mechanisms/8_Simply_Mechanisms4_Haloalkanes_NH3.pdf This looks at the mechanism of the reaction of bromoethane with ammonia. Known as SN2 for short, this stands for substitution nucleophilic second order. Bromoethane is a primary haloalkane. They undergo SN2 reactions with the :NH3 nucleophile. In SN2 both the haloalkane molecule and :NH3 nucleophile are involved in the slow rate-determining step. It is known as a bimolecular reaction, where is where the 2 comes from in SN2.
Views: 2318 FranklyChemistry
Sn1 mechanism: kinetics and substrate
 
09:24
Mechanism and rate law for Sn1 reactions.
SN2 Reaction Mechanism
 
24:32
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry. In this mechanism, one bond is broken and one bond is formed synchronously, i.e., in one step. SN2 is a kind of nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism. Since two reacting species are involved in the slow (rate determining) step, this leads to the term substitution nucleophilic (bi-molecular) or SN2, the other major kind is SN1.[1] Many other more specialized mechanisms describe substitution reactions. The reaction type is so common that it has other names, e.g. "bimolecular nucleophilic substitution", or, among inorganic chemists, "associative substitution" or "interchange mechanism". The reaction most often occurs at an aliphatic sp3 carbon center with an electronegative, stable leaving group attached to it (often denoted X), which is frequently a halide atom. The breaking of the C–X bond and the formation of the new bond (often denoted C–Y or C–Nu) occur simultaneously through a transition state in which the carbon under nucleophilic attack is pentacoordinate, and approximately sp2 hybridised. The nucleophile attacks the carbon at 180° to the leaving group, since this provides the best overlap between the nucleophile's lone pair and the C–X σ* antibonding orbital. The leaving group is then pushed off the opposite side and the product is formed. If the substrate under nucleophilic attack is chiral, this will lead, to an inversion of stereochemistry called a Walden inversion (the nucleophile attacks the electrophilic carbon center, inverting the tetrahedron, much like an umbrella turning inside out in the wind).
Views: 697 vishwanathchemistry
E2 Reaction Mechanism - Stereochemistry, Chair Conformation, Newman Projection
 
26:41
This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a review of E2 reaction mechanisms - 2nd order bimolecular elimination reactions. Topics include how to form the saytzeff and the hoffman product using a strong unhindered base like hydroxide or a strong bulky base like tert-butoxide. Hydroxide causes the saytzeff product which is the more stable alkene to be the major product and the hoffman to be the minor product. The reverse is true for t-BuOK also known as potassium tert butoxide. This video discusses the stereochemistry of E2 reactions and contain examples that reference the cyclohexane chair conformation and a newman projection. Other topics include the following: Syn Coplanar vs Anti Coplanar Conformation - Staggered vs Eclipse Newman Projection Substrate Reactivity - E2 works better with tertiary alkyl halides Rate Law: Rate = K * Base * Substrate How To Predict The Major Product & How To Propose a Mechanism For an E2 Reaction.
E1 mechanism: kinetics and substrate
 
12:39
Mechanism and rate law for E1 reactions. Using pKa values to determine leaving group ability.
Sn2 mechanism: kinetics and substrate
 
07:21
The mechanism, rate law, and stereochemistry of Sn2 reactions. How the sterics of the alkyl halide affect the reaction rate.
SN1 Reaction Rate and Mechanism - Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Part 1
 
10:15
http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: SN1 Reaction (video 1 of 3) Reaction, Rate and Mechanism for Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Are you struggling with organic chemistry? Download my free ebook "10 Secrets To Acing Organic Chemistry" here: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Many students attempt to memorize substitution and elimination reactions and find themselves unable to differentiate between SN1 SN2 E1 E2 reactions when faced with a starting molecule and set of chemical conditions This video series is designed to help you break down every aspect of these reactions in order to build a solid knowledge base allowing you to approach reactions in a logical manner for simple solutions You can find the entire Sub/Elim series on my website: http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination If you enjoy the video please like comment and share I also offer private online tutoring. Details: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ http://youtu.be/OopqmYnQLyQ
Views: 78446 Leah4sci
SN2 Reaction (vid 2 of 3) Chirality and Mechanism of Bimolecular Substitution by Leah4sci
 
12:23
http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: SN2 reaction continued (video 2 of 3) with a focus on the mechanism and chirality of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution Are you struggling with Organic Chemistry? Download my free ebook the "10 Secrets To Acing Organic Chemistry" Here http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This SN2 video takes you through 2 additional examples showing you how to determine that an SN2 reaction can in fact take place, the step by step mechanism with a good look at the transition state, and finally a shortcut to determining the stereochemitry of your SN2 product Video 3 will take you through the mechanism for an SN2 reaction in which the leaving group simply doesn't want to leave My complete substitution/elimination video series can be found on my website using this link: http://leah4sci.com/nucleophilic-substitution-and-beta-elimination-sn1-sn2-e1-e2-reactions/ You can also find many more substitution and elimination problems with video explanations in my membership site http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join/ I also offer private online tutoring where you can work directly with me to learn the answers to your specific questions and difficulties. Visit my website for more information http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/
Views: 30783 Leah4sci

Penbritin 250 mg capsules
Jnc 8 blood pressure goals in diabetes
De bao chinese skegness webcam
Generic letter of conveyance
Turistforeningen norefjell webcam