The perfect cipher
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Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information).
About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything.
For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything
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Views: 424691
Khan Academy

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 1620
Udacity

Classical Encryption Technique
One time Pad
GTU SEM 6 Information Security
CSE /IT

Views: 27042
Dhruvin Shah

What is ONE-TIME PAD? What does ONE-TIME PAD mean? ONE-TIME PAD meaning - ONE-TIME PAD definition - ONE-TIME PAD explanation
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Views: 2208
The Audiopedia

1. Electronic Code Book Mode
2. Cipher Block Chaining Mode
3. Output Feedback Mode
4. Cipher Feedback Mode
5. Counter Mode

Views: 56664
Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

A brief treatment of cryptographic principles and a surface level description and explanation of padding oracle attacks.
This video was created for a final project in the "Defense Against the Dark Arts" class at Oregon State University.
If you notice any errors or oversights in the video, please leave a comment for future watchers.

Views: 346
Ian McQuoid

Cryptography
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cryptography
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Views: 9159
intrigano

Cyber Attack Countermeasures
Module 3 Introducing Conventional Cryptography
This module introduces the foundations of conventional cryptography along with its practical application in Kerberos.
Learning Objectives
• Recall the S/KEY protocol and its cryptanalytic properties
• Summarize the basic architecture of Kerberos
• Identify the detailed steps of Kerberos including key distribution
• Describe conventional cryptography
• Describe DES and its basic properties
• Examine how triple-DES maintains compatibility with DES through key management
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Views: 1114
intrigano

What is MIX NETWORK? What does MIX NETWORK mean? MIX NETWORK meaning - MIX NETWORK definition - MIX NETWORK explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Mix networks are routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them back out in random order to the next destination (possibly another mix node). This breaks the link between the source of the request and the destination, making it harder for eavesdroppers to trace end-to-end communications. Furthermore, mixes only know the node that it immediately received the message from, and the immediate destination to send the shuffled messages to, making the network resistant to malicious mix nodes.
Each message is encrypted to each proxy using public key cryptography; the resulting encryption is layered like a Russian doll (except that each "doll" is of the same size) with the message as the innermost layer. Each proxy server strips off its own layer of encryption to reveal where to send the message next. If all but one of the proxy servers are compromised by the tracer, untraceability can still be achieved against some weaker adversaries.
The concept of mix networks first described by David Chaum in 1981. Applications that are based on this concept include anonymous remailers (such as Mixmaster) and onion routing (including Tor).
Although mix networks provide security even if an adversary is able to view the entire path, mixing is not absolutely perfect. Adversaries can provide long term correlation attacks and track the sender and receiver of the packets.
An adversary can perform a passive attack by monitoring the traffic to and from the mix network. Analyzing the arrival times between multiple packets can reveal information. Since no changes are actively made to the packets, an attack like this is hard to detect. In a worst case of an attack, we assume that all the links of the network are observable by the adversary and the strategies and infrastructure of the mix network are known.
A packet on an input link cannot be correlated to a packet on the output link based on information about the time the packet was received, the size of the packet, or the content of the packet. Packet correlation based on packet timing is prevented by batching and correlation based on content and packet size is prevented by encryption and packet padding, respectively.
Inter-packet intervals, that is, the time difference between observation of two consecutive packets on two network links, is used to infer if the links carry the same connection. The encryption and padding does not affect the inter-packet interval related to the same IP flow. Sequences of inter-packet interval vary greatly between connections, for example in web browsing, the traffic occurs in bursts. This fact can be used to identify a connection.
Active attacks can be performed by injecting bursts of packets that contain unique timing signatures into the targeted flow. The attacker can perform attacks to attempt to identify these packets on other network links. The attacker might not be able to create new packets due to the required knowledge of symmetric keys on all the subsequent mixes. Replay packets cannot be used either as they are easily preventable through hashing and caching.
Large gaps can be created in the target flow, if the attacker drops large volumes of consecutive packets in the flow. For example, a simulation is run sending 3000 packets to the target flow, where the attacker drops the packets 1 second after the start of the flow. As the number of consecutive packets dropped increases, the effectiveness of defensive dropping decreases significantly. Introducing a large gap will almost always create a recognizable feature.

Views: 366
The Audiopedia

vernam cipher encryption
one time pad encryption
OTP encryption
vernam cipher decryption
one time pad decryption
OTP decryption
vernam cipher example in cryptography
vernam cipher example in network security
vernam cipher encryption and Vernam cipher decryption
vernam cipher algorithm
vernam cipher solved example
one time pad solved example
vernam cipher solution
vernam cipher whiteboard teaching
vernam cipher details
computer and network security
diploma engineering
degree engineering
Gujarat technological university
Description
This video will explain you in detail how vernam cipher encryption and decryption technique works.
This video includes solved example for vernam cipher encryption and decryption algorithm on whiteboard.
I had explained in detail about difficulties student might face while solving example related to vernam cipher in their examination.
More videos about encryption algorithms, computer tips and tricks, ethical hacking are coming very soon so share this video with your friends.
Subscribe to my youtube channel so that you can know when I upload any new video.
See you all very soon in next video, have great days ahead.
Thanks for watching my video.
#vernam #encryption #decryption

Views: 21755
SR COMPUTER EDUCATION

In cryptography, padding refers to a number of distinct practices.
This video is targeted to blind users.
Attribution:
Article text available under CC-BY-SA
Creative Commons image source in video

Views: 1775
Audiopedia

DES algorithm follows the Feistel Structure
Most of the Block cipher algorithms follows Feistel Structure
BLOCK SIZE - 64 bits Plain Text
No. of Rounds - 16 Rounds
Key Size - 64 bits
Sub Key Size - 48 bits
No. of Sub Keys - 16 Sub Keys
Cipher Text - 64 bits

Views: 188589
Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

Views: 14091
sonu123kashni

A brief Introduction of the logic behind Padding Oracle Attack. Computer Security Topic.

Views: 38
Yuxin Xie

Views: 1990
Dan Boneh

A college lecture in Ethical Hacking and Network Defense at CCSF, by Sam Bowne. More info at https://samsclass.info/123/123_F17.shtml

Views: 923
Sam Bowne

PadSteg (Padding Steganography) is an inter-protocol steganography system proposed by Bartosz Jankowski, Wojciech Mazurczyk and Krzysztof Szczypiorski from Warsaw University of Technology. PadSteg may be utilized for LANs and it hides steganograms in Ethernet frames padding. Learn more about network steganography at http://stegano.net

Views: 978
steganonet

Views: 12618
artmediagrouppl

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) also known as CBC algorithm mode.
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) -
1. Chaining adds a feedback mechanism to a block cipher
2. The results of the encryption of the previous block are fed back into the encryption of the current block.
3. In the first step; the first block of plain text and a random block of text, called Initialization Vector (IV) is used.
4. The IV has no special meaning it is simply used to make each message unique.
5. The value of IV is generated randomly.
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#CipherBlockChaining #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

Views: 5537
Simple Snippets

What is PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION? What does PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION mean? PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION meaning - PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION definition - PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Plaintext-awareness is a notion of security for public-key encryption. A cryptosystem is plaintext-aware if it is difficult for any efficient algorithm to come up with a valid ciphertext without being aware of the corresponding plaintext.
From a lay point of view, this is a strange property. Normally, a ciphertext is computed by encrypting a plaintext. If a ciphertext is created this way, its creator would be aware, in some sense, of the plaintext. However, many cryptosystems are not plaintext-aware. As an example, consider the RSA cryptosystem without padding. In the RSA cryptosystem, plaintexts and ciphertexts are both values modulo N (the modulus). Therefore, RSA is not plaintext aware: one way of generating a ciphertext without knowing the plaintext is to simply choose a random number modulo N.
In fact, plaintext-awareness is a very strong property. Any cryptosystem that is semantically secure and is plaintext-aware is actually secure against a chosen-ciphertext attack, since any adversary that chooses ciphertexts would already know the plaintexts associated with them.
The concept of plaintext-aware encryption was developed by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway in their paper on optimal asymmetric encryption, as a method to prove that a cryptosystem is chosen-ciphertext secure.
Limited research on plaintext-aware encryption has been done since Bellare and Rogaway's paper. Although several papers have applied the plaintext-aware technique in proving encryption schemes are chosen-ciphertext secure, only three papers revisit the concept of plaintext-aware encryption itself, both focussed on the definition given by Bellare and Rogaway that inherently require random oracles. Plaintext-aware encryption is known to exist when a public-key infrastructure is assumed. Also, it has been shown that weaker forms of plaintext-awareness exist under the knowledge of exponent assumption, a non-standard assumption about Diffie-Hellman triples. Finally a variant of the Cramer Shoup encryption scheme was shown to be fully plaintext aware in the standard model under the knowledge of exponent assumption.

Views: 69
The Audiopedia

In this network security video tutorial we will study the DES algorithm in cryptography. DES also known as Data Encryption Standard algorithm is one of the most famous and widely studied algorithm and is very important to study especially if you are a Computer Science or Information Technology student. We will also study and understand the variations of DES that is the Types of DES.
Types of DES -
1. Double DES
2. Triple DES
2.1 Triple DES with 3 Keys
2.2 Triple DES with 2 Keys
Data Encryption Standard Algorithm(DES) -
1. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed in the 1970s by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)with the help of the National Security Agency (NSA).
2. DES is a block cipher.
It encrypts data in block size of 64 bits each.
3. It produces 64 bit of cipher text
4. Same algorithm and key are used for encryption and decryption.
5. The key length is 56 bits. The key originally consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 of these are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits are used solely for checking parity, and are thereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length is 56 bits.
6. Consists of 16 steps, each of which is called as a round. Each round performs the steps of substitution and transposition
DES is Based on two fundamental attributes:
1. Substitution - also called as confusion
2. Transposition - also called as diffusion
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#DES #DataEncryptionStandard #NetworkSecurity

Views: 8522
Simple Snippets

A lecture for a college course -- CNIT 141: Cryptography for Computer Networks at City College San Francisco
Instructor: Sam Bowne
More info: https://samsclass.info/141/141_F17.shtml

Views: 265
Sam Bowne

CNNs for deep learning. Blog for this vid! http://deeplizard.com/learn/video/YRhxdVk_sIs
#21 in Machine Leaning / Deep Learning for Programmers Playlist
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZbbT5o_s2xq7LwI2y8_QtvuXZedL6tQU
In this video, we explain the concept of convolutional neural networks, how they’re used, and how they work on a technical level. We also discuss the details behind convolutional layers and filters.
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Views: 191918
deeplizard

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 3100
Udacity

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 1423
Udacity

Views: 2477
Dan Boneh

Padding Oracle ( Pentester Lab ) CTF

Views: 578
Moch Takasuna Zaki

In diesem Tutorial geht es um den aktuellen Standard des RSA-Verfahrens: RSA ES OAEP.
Buchempfehlung: Introduction to Modern Cryptography von Katz und Lindell: http://amzn.to/2qu6CNb
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Views: 1478
The Morpheus Tutorials

What is RANDOM ORACLE? What does RANDOM ORACLE mean? RANDOM ORACLE meaning - RANDOM ORACLE definition - RANDOM ORACLE explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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In cryptography, a random oracle is an oracle (a theoretical black box) that responds to every unique query with a (truly) random response chosen uniformly from its output domain. If a query is repeated it responds the same way every time that query is submitted.
Stated differently, a random oracle is a mathematical function chosen uniformly at random, that is, a function mapping each possible query to a (fixed) random response from its output domain.
Random oracles as a mathematical abstraction were firstly used in rigorous cryptographic proofs in the 1993 publication by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway (1993). They are typically used when the cryptographic hash functions in the method cannot be proven to possess the mathematical properties required by the proof. A system that is proven secure when every hash function is replaced by a random oracle is described as being secure in the random oracle model, as opposed to secure in the standard model of cryptography.
Random oracles are typically used as an ideal replacement for cryptographic hash functions in schemes where strong randomness assumptions are needed of the hash function's output. Such a proof generally shows that a system or a protocol is secure by showing that an attacker must require impossible behavior from the oracle, or solve some mathematical problem believed hard in order to break it.
Not all uses of cryptographic hash functions require random oracles: schemes that require only one or more properties having a definition in the standard model (such as collision resistance, preimage resistance, second preimage resistance, etc.) can often be proven secure in the standard model (e.g., the Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem).
Random oracles have long been considered in computational complexity theory, and many schemes have been proven secure in the random oracle model, for example Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding, RSA-FDH and Probabilistic Signature Scheme. In 1986, Amos Fiat and Adi Shamir showed a major application of random oracles – the removal of interaction from protocols for the creation of signatures.
In 1989, Russell Impagliazzo and Steven Rudich showed the limitation of random oracles – namely that their existence alone is not sufficient for secret-key exchange.
In 1993, Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway were the first to advocate their use in cryptographic constructions. In their definition, the random oracle produces a bit-string of infinite length which can be truncated to the length desired.
According to the Church–Turing thesis, no function computable by a finite algorithm can implement a true random oracle (which by definition requires an infinite description).
In fact, certain artificial signature and encryption schemes are known which are proven secure in the random oracle model, but which are trivially insecure when any real function is substituted for the random oracle. Nonetheless, for any more natural protocol a proof of security in the random oracle model gives very strong evidence of the practical security of the protocol.
In general, if a protocol is proven secure, attacks to that protocol must either be outside what was proven, or break one of the assumptions in the proof; for instance if the proof relies on the hardness of integer factorization, to break this assumption one must discover a fast integer factorization algorithm. Instead, to break the random oracle assumption, one must discover some unknown and undesirable property of the actual hash function; for good hash functions where such properties are believed unlikely, the considered protocol can be considered secure.

Views: 429
The Audiopedia

Full Video Details: http://www.securitytube.net/video/117

Views: 15635
TheSecurityTube

Whether it’s by email, text, or social media platform, the average person will send over 60 messages per day—that's 22,000 messages per year. With billions of messages sent around the world each day, how can you be sure that your messages are safe and secure?
Join professor Dan Boneh, one of the world’s leading experts of applied cryptography and network security, in this breakdown of vulnerabilities in WEP and iMessage.
This presentation is brought to you by the Stanford Computer Forum and the Stanford Advanced Computer Security Program. If you would like information on how to join the forum and attend the next meeting, see our website: http://forum.stanford.edu/about/howtojoin.php.

Views: 1748
stanfordonline

Cryptography
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cryptography
========================
Playlist URL: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL2jykFOD1AWb07OLBdFI2QIHvPo3aTTeu
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Youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/intrigano
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https://www.facebook.com/cyberassociation/

Views: 2538
intrigano

This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459

Views: 6529
Udacity

What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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The Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) is the IETF's standard for cryptographically protected messages. It can be used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate or encrypt any form of digital data.
CMS is based on the syntax of PKCS#7, which in turn is based on the Privacy-Enhanced Mail standard. The newest version of CMS (as of 2009) is specified in RFC 5652 (but see also RFC 5911 for updated ASN.1 modules conforming to ASN.1 2002).
The architecture of CMS is built around certificate-based key management, such as the profile defined by the PKIX working group.
CMS is used as the key cryptographic component of many other cryptographic standards, such as S/MIME, PKCS #12 and the RFC 3161 Digital timestamping protocol.
OpenSSL is open source software that can encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify, compress and uncompress CMS documents.

Views: 685
The Audiopedia

Views: 5032
Internetwork Security

What is FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Financial cryptography (FC) is the use of cryptography in applications in which financial loss could result from subversion of the message system. Financial cryptography is distinguished from traditional cryptography in that for most of recorded history, cryptography has been used almost entirely for military and diplomatic purposes.
Financial cryptography includes the mechanisms and algorithms necessary for the protection of financial transfers, in addition to the creation of new forms of money. Proof of work and various auction protocols fall under the umbrella of Financial Cryptography. Hashcash is being used to limit spam.
Financial cryptography has been seen to have a very broad scope of application. Ian Grigg sees financial cryptography in seven layers, being the combination of seven distinct disciplines: cryptography, software engineering, rights, accounting, governance, value, and financial applications. Business failures can often be traced to the absence of one or more of these disciplines, or to poor application of them. This views Financial Cryptography as an appropriately cross-discipline subject. Indeed, inevitably so, given that finance and cryptography are each built upon multiple disciplines.
Cryptographers think of the field as originating in the work of Dr David Chaum who invented the blinded signature. This special form of a cryptographic signature permitted a virtual coin to be signed without the signer seeing the actual coin, and permitted a form of digital token money that offered untraceability. This form is sometimes known as Digital currency.
A system that was widely used during the 1970s-1990s and previously developed cryptographic mechanism is the Data Encryption Standard, which was used primarily for the protection of electronic funds transfers. However, it was the work of David Chaum that excited the cryptography community about the potential of encrypted messages as actual financial instruments.
As part of a business model, Financial Cryptography followed the guide of cryptography and only the simplest ideas were adopted. Account money systems protected by SSL such as PayPal and e-gold were relatively successful, but more innovative mechanisms, including blinded token money, were not.
Financial cryptography is to some extent organized around the annual meeting of the International Financial Cryptography Association, which is held each year in a different location.

Views: 114
The Audiopedia

Views: 3627
Udacity

Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Views: 11047
nptelhrd

This Cryptanalytic Attacks training video is part of the CISSP FREE training course from Skillset.com (https://www.skillset.com/certifications/cissp).
Skillset helps you pass your certification exam. Faster. Guaranteed. https://www.skillset.com
Topic: Cryptanalytic Attacks
Skill: Cryptanalytic Attacks
Skillset: Security Engineering
Certification: CISSP
Join the 40,000+ candidates in over 58 countries that have found a faster, better way to pass their certification exam.
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+ Personalized learning plan
+ Align exam engine to your current baseline knowledge
+ Eliminate wasted study time
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And much more - https://www.skillset.com

Views: 6649
Skillset

Christoph Dobraunig and Maria Eichlseder and Thomas Korak and Victor Lomné and Florian Mendel. Talk at Asiacrypt 2016. See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=27913

Views: 364
TheIACR

Cryptography semantic Security
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
Playlist URL: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL2jykFOD1AWYosqucluZghEVjUkopdD1e
About this course: Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key.

Views: 1051
intrigano

What is DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION? What does DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION mean? DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION meaning - DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION definition - DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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A deterministic encryption scheme (as opposed to a probabilistic encryption scheme) is a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm. Examples of deterministic encryption algorithms include RSA cryptosystem (without encryption padding), and many block ciphers when used in ECB mode or with a constant initialization vector.
Deterministic encryption can leak information to an eavesdropper, who may recognize known ciphertexts. For example, when an adversary learns that a given ciphertext corresponds to some interesting message, they can learn something every time that ciphertext is transmitted. To gain information about the meaning of various ciphertexts, an adversary might perform a statistical analysis of messages transmitted over an encrypted channel, or attempt to correlate ciphertexts with observed actions (e.g., noting that a given ciphertext is always received immediately before a submarine dive). This concern is particularly serious in the case of public key cryptography, where any party can encrypt chosen messages using a public encryption key. In this case, the adversary can build a large "dictionary" of useful plaintext/ciphertext pairs, then observe the encrypted channel for matching ciphertexts.
While deterministic encryption schemes can never be semantically secure, they have some advantages over probabilistic schemes.
One primary motivation for the use of deterministic encryption is the efficient searching of encrypted data. Suppose a client wants to outsource a database to a possibly untrusted database service provider. If each entry is encrypted using a public-key cryptosystem, anyone can add to the database, and only the distinguished "receiver" who has the private key can decrypt the database entries. If, however, the receiver wants to search for a specific record in the database, this becomes very difficult. There are some Public Key encryption schemes that allow keyword search, however these schemes all require search time linear in the database size. If the database entries were encrypted with a deterministic scheme and sorted, then a specific field of the database could be retrieved in logarithmic time.
Assuming that a deterministic encryption scheme is going to be used, it is important to understand what is the maximum level of security that can be guaranteed.
A number of works have focused on this exact problem. The first work to rigorously define security for a deterministic scheme was in CRYPTO 2007. This work provided fairly strong security definitions (although weaker than semantic security), and gave constructions in the random oracle model. Two follow-up works appeared the next year in CRYPTO 2008, giving definitional equivalences and constructions without random oracles , .
To counter this problem, cryptographers proposed the notion of "randomized" or probabilistic encryption. Under these schemes, a given plaintext can encrypt to one of a very large set of possible ciphertexts, chosen randomly during the encryption process. Under sufficiently strong security guarantees the attacks proposed above become infeasible, as the adversary will be unable to correlate any two encryptions of the same message, or correlate a message to its ciphertext, even given access to the public encryption key. This guarantee is known as semantic security or indistinguishability, and has several definitions depending on the assumed capabilities of the attacker.

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The Audiopedia

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Rezky Wulandari

Speaking with Cryptographic Oracles
DANIEL CROWLEY APPLICATION SECURITY CONSULTANT, TRUSTWAVE - SPIDERLABS
Cryptography is often used to secure data, but few people have a solid understanding of cryptography. It is often said that if you are not strictly a cryptographer, you will get cryptography wrong. For that matter, if you ARE a cryptographer, it is still easy to make mistakes. The algorithms might be peer reviewed and unbroken for 15 years, but if you use them incorrectly, they might leak information. Cryptographic oracles are systems which take user-controlled input and leak part or all of the output, generally leading to an attacker being able to defeat the cryptography, in part of in whole. In this talk, methods for finding and exploiting encryption, decryption, and padding oracles with minimal cryptographic knowledge will be discussed.
Daniel Crowley is an Application Security Consultant for Trustwave's SpiderLabs team. He has been working in the information security industry for over 6 years and has been focused on penetration testing, specifically on Web applications. Daniel is particularly interested in vulnerabilities caused by a failure to account for little known or even undocumented properties of the platforms on which applications run. He especially enjoys playing around with Web based technologies and physical security technologies and techniques. Dan also rock climbs and makes a mean chili.
Twitter: @dan_crowley.

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DEFCONConference

Solving the AES whitebox crypto challenge without even touching crypto or AES.
The tools: https://github.com/SideChannelMarvels
Challenge: https://github.com/Riscure/Rhme-2017/tree/master/prequalifications/White%20Box%20Unboxing
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LiveOverflow

Cryptography chosen ciphertext attacks
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Playlist URL: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL2jykFOD1AWYosqucluZghEVjUkopdD1e
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About this course: Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key.

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