Search results “Meaning of padding in cryptography and network”

1. Electronic Code Book Mode
2. Cipher Block Chaining Mode
3. Output Feedback Mode
4. Cipher Feedback Mode
5. Counter Mode

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Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

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5 Minutes Engineering

If you like this video and want to support me, go this page for my donation crypto addresses:
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This is part 8 of the IOTA tutorial.
In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understand IOTA.
It is recommended to watch each video sequentially as I may refer to certain IOTA topics explained earlier.
In 2007, the sponge construction was introduced by Guido Bertoni and others.
A sponge construction or sponge function takes input bit data of any length (message) and produce an output bit data of any desired length (hash digest).
Simply said, the data is "absorbed" into the sponge, then the result is "squeezed" out.
The sponge function has two phases, the absorbing phase in which the message is compressed iteratively followed by the squeezing phase in which the hash digest is extracted in a iterative manner.
A sponge function has three components:
A state memory (S) which is divided into two sections: one of size r (the bitrate) and the other of size c (the capacity).
For simplicity sake in this video the capacity will be complete ignored.
A compression function (f) of fixed length that transforms the state memory.
IOTA uses the Keccak-384 hash algorithm as its compression function.
Please note this Keccak-384 hash algorithm does not comply with the standardised SHA3-384 as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
A padding function (pad) which appends enough bits to the input data (M) so that the length of the padded input is a whole multiple of the bitrate r.
The padded input can thus be broken into r-bit blocks.
The sponge function operates as follows, starting with the absorbing phase:
The state memory S is initialised to zero.
The padded input is broken into r-bit blocks and called M0, M1, M2, etc.
The r-bit block is XORed with the first message block M0 and the result is passed to the compression function f.
The function stores its result in the state memory S.
The updated r-bit block is XORed with the second message block M1 and the result is passed to function f.
Again function f stores its result in the state memory S.
The process is repeated until all message blocks M0, M1, M2 etc. are used up.
The sponge function squeezing phase, to create the hash digest is as follows:
The r-bit block of the state memory is the first r bits of output (Z0).
If more output bits are desired the r-bit block is passed to function f.
Function f stores its result in the state memory S.
The r-bit block of the state memory is the next r bits of output (Z1).
The process is repeated until the desired number of output bits are produced.
The concatenated values Z0, Z1, Z2, etc, forms the hash digest.
If the output length is not a multiple of r bits, it will be truncated.
More information about the sponge construction:
https://keccak.team/sponge_duplex.html
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The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at:
https://www.mobilefish.com/developer/iota/iota_quickguide_tutorial.html
#mobilefish #howto #iota

Views: 4504
Mobilefish.com

In cryptography, padding refers to a number of distinct practices.
This video is targeted to blind users.
Attribution:
Article text available under CC-BY-SA
Creative Commons image source in video

Views: 1852
Audiopedia

Views: 14122
artmediagrouppl

Cyber Attack Countermeasures
Module 3 Introducing Conventional Cryptography
This module introduces the foundations of conventional cryptography along with its practical application in Kerberos.
Learning Objectives
• Recall the S/KEY protocol and its cryptanalytic properties
• Summarize the basic architecture of Kerberos
• Identify the detailed steps of Kerberos including key distribution
• Describe conventional cryptography
• Describe DES and its basic properties
• Examine how triple-DES maintains compatibility with DES through key management
Subscribe at: https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks/home/welcome
https://www.coursera.org

Views: 1268
intrigano

Cryptography
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cryptography
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intrigano

There are many different types of ciphers
The examples shown in this video are substitution and transposition ciphers
This video shows how normal plain-text is converted to cipher-text
References:
Substitution cipher. (n.d.). Retrieved February 18, 2015, from https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Substitution_cipher.html

Views: 24729
Simple Security

Views: 14804
sonu123kashni

Known Plaintext Attack || Chosen Plaintext Attack

Views: 9216
Pritesh Prajapati

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 1643
Udacity

MD5 in Hindi - Message Digest, Hash Functions, Working and Operation of MD5 - Network Security
Hash Functions – Features, Properties, Working of MD5, Operation of MD5
#MD5
Computer Network Security(CNS) Lectures – Internet Security

Views: 38754
Easy Engineering Classes

Cryptography
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cryptography
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Views: 10127
intrigano

Cryptography chosen ciphertext attacks
To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
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About this course: Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key.

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intrigano

Classical Encryption Technique
One time Pad
GTU SEM 6 Information Security
CSE /IT

Views: 27369
Dhruvin Shah

A lecture for a college course -- CNIT 141: Cryptography for Computer Networks at City College San Francisco
Instructor: Sam Bowne
More info: https://samsclass.info/141/141_F17.shtml

Views: 288
Sam Bowne

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) also known as CBC algorithm mode.
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) -
1. Chaining adds a feedback mechanism to a block cipher
2. The results of the encryption of the previous block are fed back into the encryption of the current block.
3. In the first step; the first block of plain text and a random block of text, called Initialization Vector (IV) is used.
4. The IV has no special meaning it is simply used to make each message unique.
5. The value of IV is generated randomly.
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#CipherBlockChaining #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

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Simple Snippets

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 19589
Udacity

A college lecture in Ethical Hacking and Network Defense at CCSF, by Sam Bowne. More info at https://samsclass.info/123/123_F17.shtml

Views: 1056
Sam Bowne

This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459

Views: 6856
Udacity

What is ONE-TIME PAD? What does ONE-TIME PAD mean? ONE-TIME PAD meaning - ONE-TIME PAD definition - ONE-TIME PAD explanation
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Views: 2278
The Audiopedia

In this video I go through the actual mechanisms of the padding oracle attack. The attack exploits any CBC-mode block cipher that alerts the user to malformed padding to recover the full plaintext. This attack has been, and is, used in the wild.
Source required to follow:
https://corvuscrypto.com/posts/padding-oracle-attack-part-two#files
Errata:
~4:25 - I meant to say PKCS #5 as a padding SPECIFICATION. PKCS #5 is a set of rules. Padding is only a part of it. Sorry :')

Views: 1415
Corvus Crypto

DES algorithm follows the Feistel Structure
Most of the Block cipher algorithms follows Feistel Structure
BLOCK SIZE - 64 bits Plain Text
No. of Rounds - 16 Rounds
Key Size - 64 bits
Sub Key Size - 48 bits
No. of Sub Keys - 16 Sub Keys
Cipher Text - 64 bits

Views: 203325
Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

What is MIX NETWORK? What does MIX NETWORK mean? MIX NETWORK meaning - MIX NETWORK definition - MIX NETWORK explanation.
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Mix networks are routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them back out in random order to the next destination (possibly another mix node). This breaks the link between the source of the request and the destination, making it harder for eavesdroppers to trace end-to-end communications. Furthermore, mixes only know the node that it immediately received the message from, and the immediate destination to send the shuffled messages to, making the network resistant to malicious mix nodes.
Each message is encrypted to each proxy using public key cryptography; the resulting encryption is layered like a Russian doll (except that each "doll" is of the same size) with the message as the innermost layer. Each proxy server strips off its own layer of encryption to reveal where to send the message next. If all but one of the proxy servers are compromised by the tracer, untraceability can still be achieved against some weaker adversaries.
The concept of mix networks first described by David Chaum in 1981. Applications that are based on this concept include anonymous remailers (such as Mixmaster) and onion routing (including Tor).
Although mix networks provide security even if an adversary is able to view the entire path, mixing is not absolutely perfect. Adversaries can provide long term correlation attacks and track the sender and receiver of the packets.
An adversary can perform a passive attack by monitoring the traffic to and from the mix network. Analyzing the arrival times between multiple packets can reveal information. Since no changes are actively made to the packets, an attack like this is hard to detect. In a worst case of an attack, we assume that all the links of the network are observable by the adversary and the strategies and infrastructure of the mix network are known.
A packet on an input link cannot be correlated to a packet on the output link based on information about the time the packet was received, the size of the packet, or the content of the packet. Packet correlation based on packet timing is prevented by batching and correlation based on content and packet size is prevented by encryption and packet padding, respectively.
Inter-packet intervals, that is, the time difference between observation of two consecutive packets on two network links, is used to infer if the links carry the same connection. The encryption and padding does not affect the inter-packet interval related to the same IP flow. Sequences of inter-packet interval vary greatly between connections, for example in web browsing, the traffic occurs in bursts. This fact can be used to identify a connection.
Active attacks can be performed by injecting bursts of packets that contain unique timing signatures into the targeted flow. The attacker can perform attacks to attempt to identify these packets on other network links. The attacker might not be able to create new packets due to the required knowledge of symmetric keys on all the subsequent mixes. Replay packets cannot be used either as they are easily preventable through hashing and caching.
Large gaps can be created in the target flow, if the attacker drops large volumes of consecutive packets in the flow. For example, a simulation is run sending 3000 packets to the target flow, where the attacker drops the packets 1 second after the start of the flow. As the number of consecutive packets dropped increases, the effectiveness of defensive dropping decreases significantly. Introducing a large gap will almost always create a recognizable feature.

Views: 427
The Audiopedia

vernam cipher encryption
one time pad encryption
OTP encryption
vernam cipher decryption
one time pad decryption
OTP decryption
vernam cipher example in cryptography
vernam cipher example in network security
vernam cipher encryption and Vernam cipher decryption
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vernam cipher solved example
one time pad solved example
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vernam cipher whiteboard teaching
vernam cipher details
computer and network security
diploma engineering
degree engineering
Gujarat technological university
Description
This video will explain you in detail how vernam cipher encryption and decryption technique works.
This video includes solved example for vernam cipher encryption and decryption algorithm on whiteboard.
I had explained in detail about difficulties student might face while solving example related to vernam cipher in their examination.
More videos about encryption algorithms, computer tips and tricks, ethical hacking are coming very soon so share this video with your friends.
Subscribe to my youtube channel so that you can know when I upload any new video.
See you all very soon in next video, have great days ahead.
Thanks for watching my video.
#vernam #encryption #decryption

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SR COMPUTER EDUCATION

In this network security video tutorial we will study the DES algorithm in cryptography. DES also known as Data Encryption Standard algorithm is one of the most famous and widely studied algorithm and is very important to study especially if you are a Computer Science or Information Technology student. We will also study and understand the variations of DES that is the Types of DES.
Types of DES -
1. Double DES
2. Triple DES
2.1 Triple DES with 3 Keys
2.2 Triple DES with 2 Keys
Data Encryption Standard Algorithm(DES) -
1. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed in the 1970s by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)with the help of the National Security Agency (NSA).
2. DES is a block cipher.
It encrypts data in block size of 64 bits each.
3. It produces 64 bit of cipher text
4. Same algorithm and key are used for encryption and decryption.
5. The key length is 56 bits. The key originally consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 of these are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits are used solely for checking parity, and are thereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length is 56 bits.
6. Consists of 16 steps, each of which is called as a round. Each round performs the steps of substitution and transposition
DES is Based on two fundamental attributes:
1. Substitution - also called as confusion
2. Transposition - also called as diffusion
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#DES #DataEncryptionStandard #NetworkSecurity

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Simple Snippets

This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.

Views: 10148
Udacity

Cryptography helps us to communicate securely with someone in the presence of third parties. We use this when we do for instance, online banking or even as mundane tasks as reading our gmail. In this episode, we review some cipher techniques such as the Caesar cipher, rot13, and as we find out how easy they are to break, we transition to the only known technique to yield perfect secrecy: one time pads. Are they practical enough for everyday use? How do our findings relate to extraterrestrial communications? Both questions get answered in the video.
Additional comment: "In modern certification cryptanalysis, if a cipher output can be distinguished from a PRF (pseudo random functions), it's enough to deem it broken." - Source: https://twitter.com/cryptoland/status/666721478675668993
______________________
The paper "Cipher printing telegraph systems: For secret wire and radio telegraphic communications" is available here:
http://math.boisestate.edu/~liljanab/Math509Spring10/vernam.pdf
You can try encrypting your own messages on these websites:
http://practicalcryptography.com/ciphers/caesar-cipher/
http://rot13.com/index.php
http://www.braingle.com/brainteasers/codes/onetimepad.php
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Views: 10686
Two Minute Papers

What is RANDOM ORACLE? What does RANDOM ORACLE mean? RANDOM ORACLE meaning - RANDOM ORACLE definition - RANDOM ORACLE explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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In cryptography, a random oracle is an oracle (a theoretical black box) that responds to every unique query with a (truly) random response chosen uniformly from its output domain. If a query is repeated it responds the same way every time that query is submitted.
Stated differently, a random oracle is a mathematical function chosen uniformly at random, that is, a function mapping each possible query to a (fixed) random response from its output domain.
Random oracles as a mathematical abstraction were firstly used in rigorous cryptographic proofs in the 1993 publication by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway (1993). They are typically used when the cryptographic hash functions in the method cannot be proven to possess the mathematical properties required by the proof. A system that is proven secure when every hash function is replaced by a random oracle is described as being secure in the random oracle model, as opposed to secure in the standard model of cryptography.
Random oracles are typically used as an ideal replacement for cryptographic hash functions in schemes where strong randomness assumptions are needed of the hash function's output. Such a proof generally shows that a system or a protocol is secure by showing that an attacker must require impossible behavior from the oracle, or solve some mathematical problem believed hard in order to break it.
Not all uses of cryptographic hash functions require random oracles: schemes that require only one or more properties having a definition in the standard model (such as collision resistance, preimage resistance, second preimage resistance, etc.) can often be proven secure in the standard model (e.g., the Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem).
Random oracles have long been considered in computational complexity theory, and many schemes have been proven secure in the random oracle model, for example Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding, RSA-FDH and Probabilistic Signature Scheme. In 1986, Amos Fiat and Adi Shamir showed a major application of random oracles – the removal of interaction from protocols for the creation of signatures.
In 1989, Russell Impagliazzo and Steven Rudich showed the limitation of random oracles – namely that their existence alone is not sufficient for secret-key exchange.
In 1993, Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway were the first to advocate their use in cryptographic constructions. In their definition, the random oracle produces a bit-string of infinite length which can be truncated to the length desired.
According to the Church–Turing thesis, no function computable by a finite algorithm can implement a true random oracle (which by definition requires an infinite description).
In fact, certain artificial signature and encryption schemes are known which are proven secure in the random oracle model, but which are trivially insecure when any real function is substituted for the random oracle. Nonetheless, for any more natural protocol a proof of security in the random oracle model gives very strong evidence of the practical security of the protocol.
In general, if a protocol is proven secure, attacks to that protocol must either be outside what was proven, or break one of the assumptions in the proof; for instance if the proof relies on the hardness of integer factorization, to break this assumption one must discover a fast integer factorization algorithm. Instead, to break the random oracle assumption, one must discover some unknown and undesirable property of the actual hash function; for good hash functions where such properties are believed unlikely, the considered protocol can be considered secure.

Views: 476
The Audiopedia

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Electronic Code Block also known as ECB algorithm mode.
Electronic Code Block (ECB) -
1. The simplest mode of operation
2. Plain text message is divided into blocks of 64 bits each.
3. Each such block is encrypted independently of the other blocks.
4. For all blocks same key is used for encryption.
5. If a plain text block repeats in the original messages, the corresponding cipher text block will also repeat in the encrypted message.
6. Suitable only for small messages.
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#ElectronicCodeBook #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #ECB #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

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Simple Snippets

What is PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION? What does PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION mean? PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION meaning - PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION definition - PLAINTEXT-AWARE ENCRYPTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Plaintext-awareness is a notion of security for public-key encryption. A cryptosystem is plaintext-aware if it is difficult for any efficient algorithm to come up with a valid ciphertext without being aware of the corresponding plaintext.
From a lay point of view, this is a strange property. Normally, a ciphertext is computed by encrypting a plaintext. If a ciphertext is created this way, its creator would be aware, in some sense, of the plaintext. However, many cryptosystems are not plaintext-aware. As an example, consider the RSA cryptosystem without padding. In the RSA cryptosystem, plaintexts and ciphertexts are both values modulo N (the modulus). Therefore, RSA is not plaintext aware: one way of generating a ciphertext without knowing the plaintext is to simply choose a random number modulo N.
In fact, plaintext-awareness is a very strong property. Any cryptosystem that is semantically secure and is plaintext-aware is actually secure against a chosen-ciphertext attack, since any adversary that chooses ciphertexts would already know the plaintexts associated with them.
The concept of plaintext-aware encryption was developed by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway in their paper on optimal asymmetric encryption, as a method to prove that a cryptosystem is chosen-ciphertext secure.
Limited research on plaintext-aware encryption has been done since Bellare and Rogaway's paper. Although several papers have applied the plaintext-aware technique in proving encryption schemes are chosen-ciphertext secure, only three papers revisit the concept of plaintext-aware encryption itself, both focussed on the definition given by Bellare and Rogaway that inherently require random oracles. Plaintext-aware encryption is known to exist when a public-key infrastructure is assumed. Also, it has been shown that weaker forms of plaintext-awareness exist under the knowledge of exponent assumption, a non-standard assumption about Diffie-Hellman triples. Finally a variant of the Cramer Shoup encryption scheme was shown to be fully plaintext aware in the standard model under the knowledge of exponent assumption.

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The Audiopedia

Views: 3218
Udacity

Learn more advanced front-end and full-stack development at: https://www.fullstackacademy.com
SHA-1 stands for Secure Hash Algorithm 1, a cryptographic hash function developed by the NSA that can be used to verify that a file has been unaltered. In this video, we go over the basic features and common implementations of cryptographic hash functions before diving into the inner workings of a Javascript implementation of the SHA-1 function. Although out of use now, walking through the hash function code provides valuable insight into how these algorithms work.
Watch this video to learn:
- What are Cryptographic Hash Functions
- Practical uses for Cryptographic Hash Functions
- How does SHA-1 work

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Fullstack Academy

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Udacity

Details at:
http://asecuritysite.com/subjects/chapter34

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Bill Buchanan OBE

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Udacity

Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA1) explained. Dr Mike Pound explains how files are used to generate seemingly random hash strings.
EXTRA BITS: https://youtu.be/f8ZP_1K2Y-U
Tom Scott on Hash Algorithms: https://youtu.be/b4b8ktEV4Bg
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This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.
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Views: 520991
Computerphile

What is PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION? What does PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION mean? PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION meaning - PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION definition - PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION explanation.
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Probabilistic encryption is the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts. The term "probabilistic encryption" is typically used in reference to public key encryption algorithms, however various symmetric key encryption algorithms achieve a similar property (e.g., block ciphers when used in a chaining mode such as CBC). To be semantically secure, that is, to hide even partial information about the plaintext, an encryption algorithm must be probabilistic.
The first provably-secure probabilistic public-key encryption scheme was proposed by Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali, based on the hardness of the quadratic residuosity problem and had a message expansion factor equal to the public key size. More efficient probabilistic encryption algorithms include Elgamal, Paillier, and various constructions under the random oracle model, including OAEP.
Probabilistic encryption is particularly important when using public key cryptography. Suppose that the adversary observes a ciphertext, and suspects that the plaintext is either "YES" or "NO", or has a hunch that the plaintext might be "ATTACK AT CALAIS". When a deterministic encryption algorithm is used, the adversary can simply try encrypting each of his guesses under the recipient's public key, and compare each result to the target ciphertext. To combat this attack, public key encryption schemes must incorporate an element of randomness, ensuring that each plaintext maps into one of a large number of possible ciphertexts.
An intuitive approach to converting a deterministic encryption scheme into a probabilistic one is to simply pad the plaintext with a random string before encrypting with the deterministic algorithm. Conversely, decryption involves applying a deterministic algorithm and ignoring the random padding. However, early schemes which applied this naive approach were broken due to limitations in some deterministic encryption schemes. Techniques such as Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) integrate random padding in a manner that is secure using any trapdoor permutation.

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The Audiopedia

What is DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION? What does DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION mean? DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION meaning - DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION definition - DETERMINISTIC ENCRYPTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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A deterministic encryption scheme (as opposed to a probabilistic encryption scheme) is a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm. Examples of deterministic encryption algorithms include RSA cryptosystem (without encryption padding), and many block ciphers when used in ECB mode or with a constant initialization vector.
Deterministic encryption can leak information to an eavesdropper, who may recognize known ciphertexts. For example, when an adversary learns that a given ciphertext corresponds to some interesting message, they can learn something every time that ciphertext is transmitted. To gain information about the meaning of various ciphertexts, an adversary might perform a statistical analysis of messages transmitted over an encrypted channel, or attempt to correlate ciphertexts with observed actions (e.g., noting that a given ciphertext is always received immediately before a submarine dive). This concern is particularly serious in the case of public key cryptography, where any party can encrypt chosen messages using a public encryption key. In this case, the adversary can build a large "dictionary" of useful plaintext/ciphertext pairs, then observe the encrypted channel for matching ciphertexts.
While deterministic encryption schemes can never be semantically secure, they have some advantages over probabilistic schemes.
One primary motivation for the use of deterministic encryption is the efficient searching of encrypted data. Suppose a client wants to outsource a database to a possibly untrusted database service provider. If each entry is encrypted using a public-key cryptosystem, anyone can add to the database, and only the distinguished "receiver" who has the private key can decrypt the database entries. If, however, the receiver wants to search for a specific record in the database, this becomes very difficult. There are some Public Key encryption schemes that allow keyword search, however these schemes all require search time linear in the database size. If the database entries were encrypted with a deterministic scheme and sorted, then a specific field of the database could be retrieved in logarithmic time.
Assuming that a deterministic encryption scheme is going to be used, it is important to understand what is the maximum level of security that can be guaranteed.
A number of works have focused on this exact problem. The first work to rigorously define security for a deterministic scheme was in CRYPTO 2007. This work provided fairly strong security definitions (although weaker than semantic security), and gave constructions in the random oracle model. Two follow-up works appeared the next year in CRYPTO 2008, giving definitional equivalences and constructions without random oracles , .
To counter this problem, cryptographers proposed the notion of "randomized" or probabilistic encryption. Under these schemes, a given plaintext can encrypt to one of a very large set of possible ciphertexts, chosen randomly during the encryption process. Under sufficiently strong security guarantees the attacks proposed above become infeasible, as the adversary will be unable to correlate any two encryptions of the same message, or correlate a message to its ciphertext, even given access to the public encryption key. This guarantee is known as semantic security or indistinguishability, and has several definitions depending on the assumed capabilities of the attacker.

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The Audiopedia

Views: 2071
Dan Boneh

Full Video Details: http://www.securitytube.net/video/117

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TheSecurityTube

Abstract. 20 years ago Daniel Bleichenbacher discovered an attack against RSA as it was used in SSL and the padding mode PKCS #1 v1.5. Obviously such an old attack doesn't work any more today, because everyone has fixed it. Okay... That was a joke. It still works. With some minor modifications we were able to discover the ROBOT attack (Return Of Bleichenbachers Oracle Threat). It affected nine different vendors and we were able to sign a message with the private key from facebook.com. More info at https://robotattack.org/ and in the full paper at https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1189
Biography. Hanno Böck is a freelance journalist and regularly covers IT security topics for Golem.de and other publications. He also writes the monthly Bulletproof TLS Newsletter. In 2014 he started the Fuzzing Project, an effort to improve the security of free software applications. This work is supported by the Linux Foundation's Core Infrastructure Initiative.

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Hackmanit GmbH

Views: 3781
Rezky Wulandari

A brief Introduction of the logic behind Padding Oracle Attack. Computer Security Topic.

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Yuxin Xie

In diesem Tutorial geht es um den aktuellen Standard des RSA-Verfahrens: RSA ES OAEP.
Buchempfehlung: Introduction to Modern Cryptography von Katz und Lindell: http://amzn.to/2qu6CNb
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The Morpheus Tutorials

Speaking with Cryptographic Oracles
DANIEL CROWLEY APPLICATION SECURITY CONSULTANT, TRUSTWAVE - SPIDERLABS
Cryptography is often used to secure data, but few people have a solid understanding of cryptography. It is often said that if you are not strictly a cryptographer, you will get cryptography wrong. For that matter, if you ARE a cryptographer, it is still easy to make mistakes. The algorithms might be peer reviewed and unbroken for 15 years, but if you use them incorrectly, they might leak information. Cryptographic oracles are systems which take user-controlled input and leak part or all of the output, generally leading to an attacker being able to defeat the cryptography, in part of in whole. In this talk, methods for finding and exploiting encryption, decryption, and padding oracles with minimal cryptographic knowledge will be discussed.
Daniel Crowley is an Application Security Consultant for Trustwave's SpiderLabs team. He has been working in the information security industry for over 6 years and has been focused on penetration testing, specifically on Web applications. Daniel is particularly interested in vulnerabilities caused by a failure to account for little known or even undocumented properties of the platforms on which applications run. He especially enjoys playing around with Web based technologies and physical security technologies and techniques. Dan also rock climbs and makes a mean chili.
Twitter: @dan_crowley.

Views: 372
DEFCONConference

What is FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - FINANCIAL CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Financial cryptography (FC) is the use of cryptography in applications in which financial loss could result from subversion of the message system. Financial cryptography is distinguished from traditional cryptography in that for most of recorded history, cryptography has been used almost entirely for military and diplomatic purposes.
Financial cryptography includes the mechanisms and algorithms necessary for the protection of financial transfers, in addition to the creation of new forms of money. Proof of work and various auction protocols fall under the umbrella of Financial Cryptography. Hashcash is being used to limit spam.
Financial cryptography has been seen to have a very broad scope of application. Ian Grigg sees financial cryptography in seven layers, being the combination of seven distinct disciplines: cryptography, software engineering, rights, accounting, governance, value, and financial applications. Business failures can often be traced to the absence of one or more of these disciplines, or to poor application of them. This views Financial Cryptography as an appropriately cross-discipline subject. Indeed, inevitably so, given that finance and cryptography are each built upon multiple disciplines.
Cryptographers think of the field as originating in the work of Dr David Chaum who invented the blinded signature. This special form of a cryptographic signature permitted a virtual coin to be signed without the signer seeing the actual coin, and permitted a form of digital token money that offered untraceability. This form is sometimes known as Digital currency.
A system that was widely used during the 1970s-1990s and previously developed cryptographic mechanism is the Data Encryption Standard, which was used primarily for the protection of electronic funds transfers. However, it was the work of David Chaum that excited the cryptography community about the potential of encrypted messages as actual financial instruments.
As part of a business model, Financial Cryptography followed the guide of cryptography and only the simplest ideas were adopted. Account money systems protected by SSL such as PayPal and e-gold were relatively successful, but more innovative mechanisms, including blinded token money, were not.
Financial cryptography is to some extent organized around the annual meeting of the International Financial Cryptography Association, which is held each year in a different location.

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The Audiopedia

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Bill Buchanan OBE

© 2019 Role of investment banks in the economy

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