What is GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS? What does GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS mean? GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS meaning - GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS definition - GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Geospatial analysis, or just spatial analysis, is an approach to applying statistical analysis and other analytic techniques to data which has a geographical or spatial aspect. Such analysis would typically employ software capable of rendering maps processing spatial data, and applying analytical methods to terrestrial or geographic datasets, including the use of geographic information systems and geomatics.
Geographic information systems (GIS), which is a large domain that provides a variety of capabilities designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data, and utilizes geospatial analysis in a variety of contexts, operations and applications.
Geospatial analysis, using GIS, was developed for problems in the environmental and life sciences, in particular ecology, geology and epidemiology. It has extended to almost all industries including defense, intelligence, utilities, Natural Resources (i.e. Oil and Gas, Forestry ... etc.), social sciences, medicine and Public Safety (i.e. emergency management and criminology), disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM), and climate change adaptation (CCA). Spatial statistics typically result primarily from observation rather than experimentation.
Vector-based GIS is typically related to operations such as map overlay (combining two or more maps or map layers according to predefined rules), simple buffering (identifying regions of a map within a specified distance of one or more features, such as towns, roads or rivers) and similar basic operations. This reflects (and is reflected in) the use of the term spatial analysis within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) “simple feature specifications”. For raster-based GIS, widely used in the environmental sciences and remote sensing, this typically means a range of actions applied to the grid cells of one or more maps (or images) often involving filtering and/or algebraic operations (map algebra). These techniques involve processing one or more raster layers according to simple rules resulting in a new map layer, for example replacing each cell value with some combination of its neighbours’ values, or computing the sum or difference of specific attribute values for each grid cell in two matching raster datasets. Descriptive statistics, such as cell counts, means, variances, maxima, minima, cumulative values, frequencies and a number of other measures and distance computations are also often included in this generic term spatial analysis. Spatial analysis includes a large variety of statistical techniques (descriptive, exploratory, and explanatory statistics) that apply to data that vary spatially and which can vary over time. Some more advanced statistical techniques include Getis-ord Gi* or Anselin Local Moran's I which are used to determine clustering patterns of spatially referenced data.
Geospatial analysis goes beyond 2D and 3D mapping operations and spatial statistics. It includes:
Surface analysis —in particular analysing the properties of physical surfaces, such as gradient, aspect and visibility, and analysing surface-like data “fields”;
Network analysis — examining the properties of natural and man-made networks in order to understand the behaviour of flows within and around such networks; and locational analysis. GIS-based network analysis may be used to address a wide range of practical problems such as route selection and facility location (core topics in the field of operations research, and problems involving flows such as those found in hydrology and transportation research. In many instances location problems relate to networks and as such are addressed with tools designed for this purpose, but in others existing networks may have little or no relevance or may be impractical to incorporate within the modeling process....