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The BB84 Protocol
 
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A short video attempting to explain the Bennett & Brassard quantum cryptography protocol. I've omitted any mention of the particular details of quantum physics that would be involved in actual real-world implementations, such as particle polarization axes, spin, and so forth, instead replacing them with abstract "processes" and freakish mysterious "machines". The physical details (interesting though they are) are not needed to understand the basics of the protocol, and I'm no physicist, so I'd probably mess them up if I tried (assuming I haven't already!). Making these images has increased my affection for Microsoft PowerPoint, and putting them all into a video has hugely exacerbated my hatred for Windows Movie Maker. NOTE: An important missing piece of information: When Alice sends qubits to Bob, she chooses between process A and process B randomly for each qubit. NOTE 2: The following video explains BB84 as well, and gives more detail regarding the physics details: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SMcf1MdOaQ NOTE 3: Here is another very interesting video about quantum cryptography. Any given real-world implementation, despite using the BB84 protocol, is bound to expose weaknesses that can be exploited. For example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0WnUlF2eAo
Views: 45431 Creature Mann
Will Quantum Computers break encryption?
 
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How do you secure messages over the internet? How do quantum computers break it? How do you fix it? Why don't you watch the video to find out? Why does this description have so many questions? Why are you still reading? What is the meaning of life? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frameofessence Twitter: https://twitter.com/frameofessence YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/frameofessence CLARIFICATIONS: You don't actually need a quantum computer to do quantum-safe encryption. As briefly mentioned at 7:04 , there are encryption schemes that can be run on regular computers that can't be broken by quantum computers. CORRECTIONS: [2:18] Technically, you can use any key to encrypt or decrypt whatever you want. But there's a specific way to use them that's useful, which is what's shown in the video. [5:36] In RSA, depending on exactly what you mean by "private key", neither key is actually derivable from the other. When they are created, they are generated together from a common base (not just the public key from the private key). But typically, the file that stores the "private key" actually contains a bit more information than just the private key. For example, in PKCS #1 RSA private key format ( https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447#appendix-A.1.2 ), the file technically contains the entire public key too. So in short, you technically can't get the public key from the private key or vice versa, but the file that contains the private key can hold more than just the private key alone, making it possible to retrieve the public key from it. Video links: Encryption and HUGE numbers - Numberphile https://youtu.be/M7kEpw1tn50 The No Cloning Theorem - minutephysics https://youtu.be/owPC60Ue0BE Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance - Veritasium https://youtu.be/ZuvK-od647c Sources: Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists http://books.google.ca/books/about/Quantum_Computing_for_Computer_Scientist.html?id=eTT0FsHA5DAC Random person talking about Quantum MITM attacks http://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/2719/is-quantum-key-distribution-safe-against-mitm-attacks-too The Ekert Protocol (i.e. E91) http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~nilic/Nina's-article.pdf Annealing vs. Universal Quantum Computers https://medium.com/quantum-bits/what-s-the-difference-between-quantum-annealing-and-universal-gate-quantum-computers-c5e5099175a1 Images, Documents, and Screenshots: Post-Quantum Cryptography initiatives http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/post-quantum-crypto/cfp-announce-dec2016.html http://pqcrypto.eu.org/docs/initial-recommendations.pdf Internet map (Carna Botnet) http://census2012.sourceforge.net/ Quantum network maps https://www.slideshare.net/ADVAOpticalNetworking/how-to-quantumsecure-optical-networks http://www.secoqc.net/html/press/pressmedia.html IBM Quantum http://research.ibm.com/ibm-q/ Music: YouTube audio library: Blue Skies Incompetech: Jay Jay Pamgaea The House of Leaves Premium Beat: Cutting Edge Technology Second Time Around Swoosh 1 sound effect came from here: http://soundbible.com/682-Swoosh-1.html ...and is under this license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/sampling+/1.0/
Views: 666503 Frame of Essence
protocolo e91 (en proceso) - Copy - by Wideo.co
 
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Views: 221 MrEspartanox
Quantum entanglement
 
32:08
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently – instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole. Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, polarization, etc. performed on entangled particles are found to be appropriately correlated. For example, if a pair of particles is generated in such a way that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have clockwise spin on a certain axis, then the spin of the other particle, measured on the same axis, will be found to be counterclockwise. Because of the nature of quantum measurement, however, this behavior gives rise to effects that can appear paradoxical: any measurement of a property of a particle can be seen as acting on that particle (e.g. by collapsing a number of superimposed states); and in the case of entangled particles, such action must be on the entangled system as a whole. It thus appears that one particle of an entangled pair "knows" what measurement has been performed on the other, and with what outcome, even though there is no known means for such information to be communicated between the particles, which at the time of measurement may be separated by arbitrarily large distances. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 776 Audiopedia
Entanglement (physics) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 00:04:17 1 History 00:08:38 2 Concept 00:08:47 2.1 Meaning of entanglement 00:11:55 2.2 Paradox 00:13:39 2.3 Hidden variables theory 00:14:45 2.4 Violations of Bell's inequality 00:16:15 2.5 Other types of experiments 00:17:52 2.6 Mystery of time 00:19:07 2.7 Source for the arrow of time 00:19:41 2.8 Emergent gravity 00:20:05 3 Non-locality and entanglement 00:21:54 4 Quantum mechanical framework 00:22:20 4.1 Pure states 00:30:06 4.2 Ensembles 00:35:57 4.3 Reduced density matrices 00:39:53 4.4 Two applications that use them 00:40:39 4.5 Entanglement as a resource 00:42:21 4.6 Classification of entanglement 00:47:07 4.7 Entropy 00:47:23 4.7.1 Definition 00:51:55 4.7.2 As a measure of entanglement 00:54:23 4.8 Entanglement measures 00:55:14 4.9 Quantum field theory 00:55:30 5 Applications 00:56:29 5.1 Entangled states 01:00:54 5.2 Methods of creating entanglement 01:01:54 5.3 Testing a system for entanglement 01:04:05 6 Naturally entangled systems 01:04:27 7 Photosynthesis 01:05:10 8 Living systems Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9410776976419057 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, and polarization, performed on entangled particles are found to be correlated. For example, if a pair of particles is generated in such a way that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have clockwise spin on a certain axis, the spin of the other particle, measured on the same axis, will be found to be counterclockwise, as is to be expected due to their entanglement. However, this behavior gives rise to seemingly paradoxical effects: any measurement of a property of a particle performs an irreversible collapse on that particle and will change the original quantum state. In the case of entangled particles, such a measurement will be on the entangled system as a whole. Given that the statistics of these measurements cannot be replicated by models in which each particle has its own state independent of the other, it appears that one particle of an entangled pair "knows" what measurement has been performed on the other, and with what outcome, even though there is no known means for such information to be communicated between the particles, which at the time of measurement may be separated by arbitrarily large distances. Such phenomena were the subject of a 1935 paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, and several papers by Erwin Schrödinger shortly thereafter, describing what came to be known as the EPR paradox. Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realist view of causality (Einstein referring to it as "spooky action at a distance") and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete. Later, however, the counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics were verified experimentally in tests where the polarization or spin of entangled particles were measured at separate locations, statistically violating Bell's inequality, demonstrating that the classical conception of "local realism" cannot be correct. In earlier tests it couldn't be absolutely ruled out that the test result at one point (or which test was being performed) could have been subtly transmitted to the remote point, affecting the outcome at the second location. However so-called "loophole-free" Bell tests have been performed in ...
Views: 10 wikipedia tts