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GCSE Science Chemistry (9-1) Alternative Methods of Extracting Metals
 
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Find my revision workbooks here: https://www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooks/shop/ In this video, we look at how to extract metals such as copper from low-grade ores using phytomining and bioleaching. Deliberate Thought by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/?keywords=deliberate+thought Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Image credits: Pyrolusite By Unknown - http://libraryphoto.cr.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/show_picture.cgi?ID=ID.%20Stose,%20G.W.%201425, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8632822 Copper mine "https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFalu_gruva_(by_Pudelek).JPG By Pudelek (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons" Mining vehicles "https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABlaxtair_loader_mr90_950H.jpg By Vianneyjeans (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons" Copper wire https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Treccia_di_rame_-_Foto_di_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto.jpg Brassica rapa By I, KENPEI, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3715795 E. coli By NIAID - E. coli Bacteria, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39933073
Views: 53204 Freesciencelessons
Superplants - How to make money by saving the environment Documentary Trailer
 
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Research at UQ, led by Dr Antony van der Ent and Associate Professor Peter Erskine (at the Sustainable Minerals Institute) has led to the discovery of over 120 hyperaccumulator plants new to science. These unusual plants have the capacity to naturally accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of certain elements, including cobalt, nickel and zinc, in their biomass. Farming these types of plants as metal crops and harvesting their metal-rich biomass is called ‘agromining’. This innovative approach enables access to resources not accessible by conventional mining techniques and abundant low-grade sources of valuable elements.
Views: 910 SMI UQ
What does phytomining mean?
 
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What does phytomining mean? A spoken definition of phytomining. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phytomining Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
What is SELECTIVE LEACHING? What does SELECTIVE LEACHING mean? SELECTIVE LEACHING meaning
 
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What is SELECTIVE LEACHING? What does SELECTIVE LEACHING mean? SELECTIVE LEACHING meaning - SELECTIVE LEACHING definition - SELECTIVE LEACHING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Selective leaching, also called dealloying, demetalification, parting and selective corrosion, is a corrosion type in some solid solution alloys, when in suitable conditions a component of the alloys is preferentially leached from the material. The less noble metal is removed from the alloy by a microscopic-scale galvanic corrosion mechanism. The most susceptible alloys are the ones containing metals with high distance between each other in the galvanic series, e.g. copper and zinc in brass. The elements most typically undergoing selective removal are zinc, aluminium, iron, cobalt, chromium, and others. The most common example is selective leaching of zinc from brass alloys containing more than 15% zinc (dezincification) in the presence of oxygen and moisture, e.g. from brass taps in chlorine-containing water. It is believed that both copper and zinc gradually dissolve out simultaneously, and copper precipitates back from the solution. The material remaining is a copper-rich sponge with poor mechanical properties, and a color changed from yellow to red. Dezincification can be caused by water containing sulfur, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Stagnant or low velocity waters tend to promote dezincification. To combat this, arsenic or tin can be added to brass, or gunmetal can be used instead. Dezincification resistant brass (DZR), also known as Brass C352 is an alloy used to make pipe fittings for use with potable water. Plumbing fittings that are resistant to dezincification are appropriately marked, with the letters "CR" (Corrosion Resistant) or DZR (dezincification resistant) in the UK, and the letters "DR" (dezincification resistant) in Australia. Graphitic corrosion is selective leaching of iron from grey cast iron, where iron gets removed and graphite grains remain intact. Affected surfaces develop a layer of graphite, rust, and metallurgical impurities that may inhibit further leaching. The effect can be substantially reduced by alloying the cast iron with nickel. Dealuminification is a corresponding process for aluminum alloys. Similar effects for different metals are decarburization (removal of carbon from the surface of alloy), decobaltification, denickelification, etc. Countermeasures involve using alloys not susceptible to grain boundary depletion, using a suitable heat treatment, altering the environment (e.g. lowering oxygen content), and/or use cathodic protection. Selective leaching can be used to produce powdered materials with extremely high surface area, such as Raney nickel. Selective leaching can be the pre-final stage of depletion gilding.
Views: 1332 The Audiopedia
Bioleaching | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioleaching 00:00:30 1 Process 00:13:33 2 Further processing 00:16:08 3 With fungi 00:17:10 4 Compared with other extraction techniques 00:18:09 4.1 Advantages 00:19:30 4.2 Disadvantages 00:21:50 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7596017573125011 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms. This is much cleaner than the traditional heap leaching using cyanide. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, and cobalt.
Views: 22 wikipedia tts
Iran made Tank Bioleaching Copper Cathode manufacturing, Shahr-e Babak مس كاتدي تانك بايوليچينگ
 
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March 14, 2018 (Persian calendar 1396/12/23) Kerman province (استان كرمان) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerman_Province Shahr-e Babak county (شهرستان شهربابك) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahr-e_Babak_County Shahr-e Babak city (شهر بابك) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahr-e_Babak Iran made Tank Bioleaching Copper Cathode manufacturing, Shahr-e Babak city توليد مس كاتدي تانك بايوليچينگ ايران
Views: 749 Persian_boy
Bioreactors for bioleaching
 
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Bioreactors for bioleaching Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the living microorganisms. This method can applied, for example, to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, cobalt. 1. 2x6 liter bioreactors for preparing of inoculant AND 4x6 liter bioreactors and feeding reactor connected in sequence by peristaltic pumps. All inside parts of them are from glass, PTFE or with special chemical resistant coating. 2. 3x30 and 80 liter bioreactors and 80 liter feed reactor connected in sequence according two options: by peristaltic pumps or gravity. All inside surfaces are with special chemical resistance coating. All equipment is constructed, for EU project, in cooperation between Biotehniskais centrs, Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (Serbia) and Mintek (South Africa).
Views: 949 Juris Vanags
Bioleaching | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioleaching 00:00:30 1 Process 00:13:54 2 Further processing 00:16:29 3 With fungi 00:17:31 4 Compared with other extraction techniques 00:18:29 4.1 Advantages 00:19:52 4.2 Disadvantages 00:22:10 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7364240683727029 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms. This is much cleaner than the traditional heap leaching using cyanide. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, and cobalt.
Views: 24 wikipedia tts
Bioleaching of ores by anami sewal
 
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an easy way to understand 'bioleaching of ores' LIKE, SHARE AND SUBSCRIBE
Views: 10 ANAMI SEWAL
BIOLEACHING PART2
 
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Follow me on Facebook: https://m.facebook.com/naveen.hunsur.3?ref=bookmarks Follow me on Instagram : https://www.instagram.com/nick.naveenhm/ Check out my last videos : 1.Classification of kingdom Protista (part 2) | microbiolog https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_PiuexPs65o&t=33s 2.kingdom Protista (part 1) | microbiology. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmITkPsGtAM 3.Reproduction in Bacteria | Microbiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hVSZPXx0hr0&t=38s 4.Bacterial cell | Microbiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXNyqjrLww0 5.kingdom Monera | Microbiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeoZMQ8vmfo&t=129s 6.Importance of Fungi | Microbiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gat-8VltZqI 7.classification of fungi | Microbiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OuQWRWIUEE&t=30s 8.Microbiology | introduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqr7tDrwbSg&t=116s 9.xenobiotics (part 2) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0NgEbyJ7k8 10.xenobiotics (part 1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=185h2bv6VgQ 11.Microbial metal recovery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-0hcKbX3qo 12.Heap leaching https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cyt_k_gNZXw&t=84s 13.Bioleaching (Part 2) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjdCE3jn4QQ 14.Bioleaching (part 1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kXCTSmK1CU4&t=20s 15.Be successful in all the interview | Must watch | 100% result https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfdzFXTc9GI
Views: 684 Nick’s Education
Phytomining Meaning
 
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Video shows what phytomining means. The planting (and subsequent harvesting) of vegetation that selectively concentrate specific metals from the environment into their tissues, for the primary or subsidiary purpose of commercial exploitation of the extracted metal.. Phytomining Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say phytomining. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 719 ADictionary
What does bioleaching mean?
 
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What does bioleaching mean? A spoken definition of bioleaching. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bioleaching Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
What is HEAP LEACHING? What does HEAP LEACHING mean? HEAP LEACHING meaning & explanation
 
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What is HEAP LEACHING? What does HEAP LEACHING mean? HEAP LEACHING meaning - HEAP LEACHING definition - HEAP LEACHING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Heap leaching is an industrial mining process to extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other compounds from ore via a series of chemical reactions that absorb specific minerals and then re-separates them after their division from other earth materials. Similar to in situ mining, heap leach mining differs in that it places ore on a liner, then adds the chemicals via drip systems to the ore, whereas in situ mining lacks these liners and pulls pregnant solution up to obtain the minerals. Most mining companies, favor the economic feasibility of the heap leaching, considering that heap leaching is a better alternative to conventional processing (such as flotation, agitation, and vat leaching). Additionally, dump leaching is an essential part of most copper mining operations and along with other deterministic factors, determines the quality grade of the produced material. Due to the effect that the dump leaching has, i.e. it can contribute substantially to the economic viability of the mining process it is advantageous to include the results of the leaching operation in the economic overall project evaluation. This, in effect, requires that the key controllable variables, which have an effect on the recovery of the metal and the quality of solution coming from a dump leaching process. The process has ancient origins; one of the classical methods for the manufacture of copperas (iron sulfate) was to heap up iron pyrite and collect the leachate from the heap, which was then boiled with iron to produce iron(II) sulfate
Views: 4074 The Audiopedia
Biomineralization, biominining and Manganese bioleaching
 
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Dr. Alok Prasad Das, yOung sCientist Winner oDisha-2013 shares his experiance sOA-90.4fm- tHe vOice of sOA
Views: 130 prasandeep88
What is DUMP LEACHING? What does DUMP LEACHING mean? DUMP LEACHING meaning & explanation
 
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What is DUMP LEACHING? What does DUMP LEACHING mean? DUMP LEACHING meaning - DUMP LEACHING definition - DUMP LEACHING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Dump leaching is an industrial process to extract precious metals and copper from ores. Dump leaching is similar to heap leaching, however in the case of dump leaching ore is taken directly from the mine and stacked on the leach pad without crushing where, in the case of gold and silver, the dump is irrigated with a dilute cyanide solution that percolates through the ore to dissolve gold and silver. The solution containing gold and silver exits the base of the dump, is collected and precious metals extracted. The resultant barren solution is recharged with additional cyanide and returned to the dump. This method of leaching is usually suitable for low grade ores because it is very low cost. However, it operates with slow kinetics and may take up about 1 to 2 years to extract 50% of the desired mineral.
Views: 1023 The Audiopedia
Bioaugmentation
 
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Views: 203 Ethan Machej
What is CARBON IN PULP? What does CARBON IN PULP mean? CARBON IN PULP meaning & explanation
 
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What is CARBON IN PULP? What does CARBON IN PULP mean? CARBON IN PULP meaning - CARBON IN PULP definition - CARBON IN PULP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Carbon in Pulp (CIP) is an extraction technique for recovery of gold which has been liberated into a cyanide solution as part of the gold cyanidation process. Introduced in the early 1980s, Carbon in Pulp is regarded as a simple and cheap process. As such it is used in most industrial applications where the presence of competing silver or copper does not prohibit its use. Activated carbon acts like a sponge to aurocyanide and other complex ions in solution. Hard carbon particles (much larger than the ore particle sizes) can be mixed with the ore and cyanide solution mixture. The gold cyanide complex is adsorbed onto the carbon until it comes to an equilibrium with the gold in solution. Because the carbon particles are much larger than the ore particles, the coarse carbon can then be separated from the slurry by screening using a wire mesh. Leached pulp and carbon are transferred in a counter current flow arrangement between a series of tanks, usually numbering 4 to 6. In the final tank, fresh or barren carbon is put in contact with low grade or tailings solution. At this tank the fresh carbon has a high activity and can remove trace amounts of gold (to levels below 0.01 mg/L Au in solution). As it moves up the train, the carbon loads to higher and higher concentrations of gold, as it comes in contact with higher grade solutions. Typically concentrations as high as 4000 to 8000 grams of gold per tonne of carbon (g/t Au) can be achieved on the final loaded carbon, as it comes in contact with freshly leached ore and pregnant leach solution (PLS). This can be measured by comparing the amount of gold extracted from the carbon to the amount of carbon used. The final loaded carbon then is removed and washed before undergoing "elution" or desorption of gold cyanide at high temperature and pH. Ethanol can also be used to desorb gold from activated carbon, but safety concerns have slowed its acceptance in the gold extraction industry. The elute solution, normally consisting of caustic soda (the electrolyte), cyanide and water circulates through the loaded carbon extracting gold and other metals. The loaded solution passes through an electro winning cell where the gold and other metals are attached to cathodes, made up of wire wool, by electrolysis. The solution then passes back through the loaded carbon extracting more gold and other metals. This process continues until the carbon has been stripped. The cathodes (wire wool now plated with gold and other metals) are removed and placed in acid. The acid burns off the wire wool and other metals such as copper and leaves a sediment of gold and solution of acid and dissolved silver. The acid and silver are drained off after which the gold sediment is numerously washed with water. After the water washes are complete the gold is dried mixed with borax and smelted.
Views: 3414 The Audiopedia
Biomethylation Meaning
 
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Video shows what biomethylation means. Any bioalkylation reaction in which a methyl group is attached. Biomethylation Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say biomethylation. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 283 ADictionary
What is ECOZONE? What does ECOZONE mean? ECOZONE meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
 
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What is ECOZONE? What does ECOZONE mean? ECOZONE meaning -ECOZONE pronunciation -ECOZONE definition - ECOZONE explanation - How to pronounce ECOZONE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided in ecoregions, which are classified in biomes or habitat types. Ecozones delineate large areas of the Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans, broad deserts, or high mountain ranges, that constitute barriers to migration. As such, ecozone designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Ecozones correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology. Ecozones are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain. They are distinct from biomes, also known as major habitat types, which are divisions of the Earth's surface based on life form, or the adaptation of animals, fungi, micro-organisms and plants to climatic, soil, and other conditions. Biomes are characterized by similar climax vegetation. Each ecozone may include a number of different biomes. A tropical moist broadleaf forest in Central America, for example, may be similar to one in New Guinea in its vegetation type and structure, climate, soils, etc., but these forests are inhabited by animals, fungi, micro-organisms and plants with very different evolutionary histories. The patterns of distribution of living organisms in the world's ecozones were shaped by the process of plate tectonics, which has redistributed the world's land masses over geological history.
Views: 5167 The Audiopedia
Bacteria that produce gold
 
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Subscribe : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpP73v-ol-KiUUSdSM0SWfw BACTERIA THAT PRODUCE PURE GOLD: ------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------- Cupriavidus metallidurans is a type of bacteria that consumes toxic metals and convert them into nano gold pellets. Image Credits: Google images & Wikipedia free to use images. Music Credits: New_Land from Audio Library. Subscribe Link: Please sub me guys and motivate me. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpP73v-ol-KiUUSdSM0SWfw?view_as=su -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "World's LONGEST Glass Bridge - CHINA | Glass-bottomed Bridge | Amazing Architect |" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcDJ3WYoTuM -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 771 Small Town Techiez
What is HYPERACCUMULATOR? What does HYPERACCUMULATOR mean? HYPERACCUMULATOR meaning
 
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What is HYPERACCUMULATOR? What does HYPERACCUMULATOR mean? HYPERACCUMULATOR meaning - HYPERACCUMULATOR definition - HYPERACCUMULATOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A hyperaccumulator is a plant capable of growing in soils with very high concentrations of metals, absorbing these metals through their roots, and concentrating extremely high levels of metals in their tissues. The metals are concentrated at levels that are toxic to closely related species not adapted to growing on the metalliferous soils. Compared to non-hyperaccumulating species, hyperaccumulator roots extract the metal from the soil at a higher rate, transfer it more quickly to their shoots, and store large amounts in leaves and roots. The ability to hyperaccumulate toxic metals compared to related species has been shown to be due to differential gene expression and regulation of the same genes in both plants. Over 500 species of flowering plants have been identified as having the ability to hyperaccumulate metals in their tissues. Hyperaccumulating plants hold interest for their ability to extract metals from the soils of contaminated sites (phytoremediation) to return the ecosystem to a less toxic state. The plants also hold potential to be used to mine metals from soils with very high concentrations (phytomining) by growing the plants then harvesting them for the metals in their tissues. The genetic advantage of hyperaccumulation of metals may be that the toxic levels of heavy metals in leaves deter herbivores or increase the toxicity of other anti-herbivory metabolites. Several gene families are involved in the processes of hyperaccumulation including upregulation of absorption and sequestration of heavy metal metals. These hyperaccumulation genes (HA genes) are found in over 450 plant species, including the model organisms Arabidopsis and Brassicaceae. The expression of such genes is used to determine whether a species is capable of hyperaccumulation1. Expression of HA genes provides the plant with capacity to uptake and sequester metals such as As, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Mn, Zn, Mo and Ni in 100-1000x the concentration found in sister species or populations. The capacity for hyperaccumulation is dependent on two major factors: environmental exposure and expression of members of the ZIP gene family. Although experiments have shown that the hyperaccumulation is partially dependent on environmental exposure (i.e. only plants exposed to a metal are observed with high concentrations of that metal), hyperaccumulation is ultimately dependent on the presence and upregulation of genes involved with that process. It has been shown that hyperaccumulation capacities can be inherited in Thlaspi caerulescens (Brassicaceae) and others. As there is wide variety among hyperaccumulating species that span across different plant families, it is likely that HA genes were ecotypically selected for. In most hyperaccumulating plants, the main mechanism for metal transport are the proteins coded by genes in the ZIP family, however other families such as the HMA, MATE, YSL and MTP families have also been observed to be involved. The ZIP gene family is a novel, plant-specific gene family that encodes Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn transporters. The ZIP family plays a role in supplying Zn to metalloproteins. In one study on Arabidopsis, it was found that the metallophyte A. halleri expressed a member of the ZIP family that was not expressed in a non-metallophytic sister species. This gene was an iron regulated transporter (IRT-protein) that encoded several primary transporters involved with cellular uptake of cations above the concentration gradient. When this gene was transformed into yeast, hyperaccumulation was observed. This suggests that overexpression of ZIP family genes that encode cation transporters is a characteristic genetic feature of hyperaccumulation. Another gene family that has been observed ubiquitously in hyperaccumulators are the ZTP and ZNT families. A study on T. caerulescens identified the ZTP family as a plant specific family with high sequence similarity to other zinc transporter4. Both the ZTP and ZNT families, like the ZIP family, are zinc transporters. It has been observed in hyperaccumulating species, that these genes, specifically ZNT1 and ZNT2 alleles are chronically overexpressed.....
Views: 367 The Audiopedia
What is RHIZOFILTRATION? What does RHIZOFILTRATION mean? RHIZOFILTRATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is RHIZOFILTRATION? What does RHIZOFILTRATION mean? RHIZOFILTRATION meaning - RHIZOFILTRATION definition - RHIZOFILTRATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Rhizofiltration is a form of phytoremediation that involves filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. Rhizofiltration is a type of phytoremediation, which refers to the approach of using hydroponically cultivated plant roots to remediate contaminated water through absorption, concentration, and precipitation of pollutants. It also filters through water and dirt. The contaminated water is either collected from a waste site and brought to the plants, or the plants are planted in the contaminated area, where the roots then take up the water and the contaminants dissolved in it. Many plant species naturally uptake heavy metals and excess nutrients for a variety of reasons: sequestration, drought resistance, disposal by leaf abscission, interference with other plants, and defense against pathogens and herbivores. Some of these species are better than others and can accumulate extraordinary amounts of these contaminants. Identification of such plant species has led environmental researchers to realize the potential for using these plants for remediation of contaminated soil and wastewater. This process is very similar to phytoextraction in that it removes contaminants by trapping them into harvestable plant biomass. Both phytoextraction and rhizofiltration follow the same basic path to remediation. First, plants are put in contact with the contamination. They absorb contaminants through their root systems and store them in root biomass and/or transport them up into the stems and/or leaves. The plants continue to absorb contaminants until they are harvested. The plants are then replaced to continue the growth/harvest cycle until satisfactory levels of contaminant are achieved. Both processes are also aimed more toward concentrating and precipitating heavy metals than organic contaminants. The major difference between rhizofiltration and phytoextraction is that rhizofiltration is used for treatment in aquatic environments, while phytoextraction deals with soil remediation. Rhizofiltration is cost-effective for large volumes of water having low concentrations of contaminants that are subjected to stringent standards. It is relatively inexpensive, yet potentially more effective than comparable technologies. The removal of radionuclides from water using sunflowers was estimated to cost between $2 and $6 per thousand gallons of water treated, including waste disposal and capital costs. Rhizofiltration is a treatment method that may be conducted in situ, with plants being grown directly in the contaminated water body. This allows for a relatively inexpensive procedure with low capital costs. Operation costs are also low but depend on the type of contaminant. This treatment method is also aesthetically pleasing and results in a decrease of water infiltration and leaching of contaminants. After harvesting, the crop may be converted to biofuel briquette, a substitute for fossil fuel. This treatment method has its limits. Any contaminant that is below the rooting depth will not be extracted. The plants used may not be able to grow in highly contaminated areas. Most importantly, it can take years to reach regulatory levels. This results in long-term maintenance. Also, most contaminated sites are polluted with many different kinds of contaminants. There can be a combination of metals and organics, in which treatment through rhizofiltration will not suffice. Plants grown on polluted water and soils become a potential threat to human and animal health, and therefore, careful attention must be paid to the harvesting process and only non-fodder crop should be chosen for the rhizofiltration remediation method.
Views: 822 The Audiopedia
Biomethylation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylation 00:01:05 1 In biology 00:01:57 1.1 Methanogenesis 00:02:30 1.2 O-Methyltransferases 00:03:04 1.3 5-O-methylations 00:03:40 1.4 Methionine synthase 00:05:20 1.5 Heavy metals: arsenic, mercury, cadmium 00:06:19 1.6 Epigenetic methylation 00:06:28 1.6.1 DNA/RNA methylation 00:09:26 1.6.2 Protein methylation 00:10:46 2 In chemistry 00:11:07 2.1 Electrophilic methylation 00:12:21 2.2 Eschweiler-Clarke methylation 00:12:47 2.3 Diazomethane and trimethylsilyldiazomethane 00:13:32 2.4 Nucleophilic methylation 00:14:22 3 See also 00:14:31 3.1 Biology topics 00:15:05 3.2 Organic chemistry topics Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7391643135516357 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group. Methylation is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom. These terms are commonly used in chemistry, biochemistry, soil science, and the biological sciences. In biological systems, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes; such methylation can be involved in modification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, regulation of protein function, and RNA processing. In vitro methylation of tissue samples is also one method for reducing certain histological staining artifacts. The counterpart of methylation is called demethylation.
Views: 63 wikipedia tts
What does phytoextraction mean?
 
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What does phytoextraction mean? A spoken definition of phytoextraction. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phytoextraction
Hyperaccumulator Meaning
 
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Video shows what hyperaccumulator means. Any plant that can accumulate large quantities of trace elements from its environment, and thus may be used in phytoremediation or phytomining.. Hyperaccumulator Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say hyperaccumulator. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 189 ADictionary
Acidophiles in acid mine drainage - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The outflow of acidic liquids and other pollutants from mines is often catalysed by acid-loving microorganisms; these are the "acidophiles in acid mine drainage". Acidophiles are not just present in exotic environments such as Yellowstone National Park or deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Genera such as Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum bacteria, and Thermoplasmatales archaea, are present in syntrophic relationships in the more mundane environments of concrete sewer pipes and implicated in the heavy-metal-containing, sulfurous waters of rivers such as the Rheidol. Such microorganisms are responsible for the phenomenon of acid mine drainage and thus are important both economically and from a conservation perspective. Control of these acidophiles and their harnessing for industrial biotechnology shows their effect need not be entirely negative. The use of acidophilic organisms in mining is a new technique for extracting trace metals through bioleaching, and offers solutions for the phenomenon of acid mine drainage in mining spoils. Upon exposure to oxygen and water , metal sulfides undergo oxidation to produce metal-rich acidic effluent. If the pH is low enough to overcome the natural buffering capacity of the surrounding rocks , the surrounding area may become acidic, as well as contaminated with high levels of heavy metals. Though acidophiles have an important place in the iron and sulfur biogeochemical cycles, strongly acidic environments are overwhelmingly anthropogenic in cause, primarily created at the cessation of mining operations where sulfide minerals, such as pyrite , are present. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidophiles+in+acid+mine+drainage, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Views: 1684 Wiz Science™
Bioabsorption Meaning
 
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Video shows what bioabsorption means. The process whereby substances are absorbed by the tissues and organs of organisms. Bioabsorption Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say bioabsorption. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 460 ADictionary
"New life" discovery by NASA - my interpretation...
 
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'bout the religion bit: Aliens, your ass is grass! The NASA report: http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2010/dec/HQ_10-320_Toxic_Life.html Me nitpicking on headlines: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13772_3-20024450-52.html http://www.nowpublic.com/environment/nasa-life-discovery-gfaj-1-arsenic-based-bacteria-mono-lake-2734061.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=orL05oSAo3g Organising life (taxonomy/phylogeny): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetics http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibit/introphylo.html http://schoolworkhelper.net/2010/07/scientific-taxonomy/ Bacterial phylogeny: Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Buchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. (2005). The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents. BMC Microbiology. 5 (19), 1-17 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/5/19/figure/F2?highres=y http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/5/19 Carl Sagan -- Cosmos (life on other planets) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oa79YA0PqdE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RB_v99FSTYc Arsenic poisoning: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenic_toxicity http://www.sos-arsenic.net/ Shi Y, Wei Y, Qu S, Wang Y, Li Y, Li R. (2010). Arsenic Induces Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Through Mitochondrial Pathways. CARDIOVASCULAR TOXICOLOGY. 10 (3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20473585 Biosensors, biomining/bioleaching & phytomining: Woznica A, Nowak A, Karczewski J, Klis C, Bernas T. (2010). Automatic biodetector of water toxicity (ABTOW) as a tool for examination of phenol and cyanide contaminated water. Chemosphere. 81 (6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20692008 Cerruti M, Jaworski J, Raorane D, Zueger C, Varadarajan J, Carraro C, Lee SW, Maboudian R, Majumdar A. (2009). Polymer-oligopeptide composite coating for selective detection of explosives in water. Analytical Chemistry. 81 (11), 4192-4199. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19476386 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytoremediation Soudek P, Valenová S, Vavríková Z, Vanek T. (2006). Cs-137 and Sr-90 uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 88 (3), 236-250. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16630674 Alvarado S, Guédez M, Lué-Merú MP, Nelson G, Alvaro A, Jesús AC, Gyula Z. (2008). Arsenic removal from waters by bioremediation with the aquatic plants Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Lesser Duckweed (Lemna minor). Bioresources Technology. 99 (17) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V24-4SCTSMS-2&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1568770809&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ffc0b49ed7a04d7b147bad5a2af992fe&searchtype=a Brainiac committed a grievous sin by exaggerating the reactivity of alkali metals Cs and Rb :\
Views: 2581 BioLogicalNerd
History Of Emamectin Benzoate - Uses- Benefits- Low Toxicity, Green Bio-Pesticides
 
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"KNOW ABOUT History Of Emamectin Benzoate - Uses- Benefits- Low Toxicity, Green Bio-Pesticides LIST OF RELATED VIDEOS OF History Of Emamectin Benzoate - Uses- Benefits- Low Toxicity, Green Bio-Pesticides History Of Garden Gnomes- Greater Yield Of Crop- Different Configurations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZZV3LB6Fgk History Of Gazebos - Chinese And Persian Civilization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9a85TzqY1I History Of Jacaranda - Famous In Several Countries, Universities Why https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-79PNJu9VA History Of Log Cabins - Eastern Europe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KR5HDd64NUA History Of Orangeries And Conservatories - Delicate Plants- European Countries https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnG4slg1lEk History Of Sanssouci Park Germany - Its Beauty - Lawns, Flowers, Hedgerows https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZZYQWCpg3Y History Of Top-Rated Pheromone Odours - Breed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDsfTCd5Jvk History Of Wind Chimes- Japan, China, South East Asia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=byeHhekaiUw History Of Windows Shutter - Relation With Spanish America https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcnBIFDBPLo Home Lawns Ants - How To Control - Best Ways To Follow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ac1tKBzAQi0"
Views: 2123 Beautyof Garden
Oil pollution remediation
 
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Oil pollution remediation http://www.oillift.net/product/oil-remover/
Views: 374 oillift
What is BACTERIAL OXIDATION? What does BACTERIAL OXIDATION mean? BACTERIAL OXIDATION meaning
 
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What is BACTERIAL OXIDATION? What does BACTERIAL OXIDATION mean? BACTERIAL OXIDATION meaning - BACTERIAL OXIDATION definition - BACTERIAL OXIDATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Bacteria biooxidation is an oxidation process caused by microbes where the valuable metal remains (but becomes enriched) in the solid phase.In this process, the metal remains in the solid phase and the liquid can be discarded. Bacterial oxidation is a biohydrometallurgical process developed for pre-cyanidation treatment of refractory gold ores or concentrates. The bacterial culture is a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. The bacterial oxidation process comprises contacting refractory sulfide ROM ore or concentrate with a strain of the bacterial culture for a suitable treatment period under an optimum operating environment. The bacteria oxidise the sulfide minerals, thus liberating the occluded gold for subsequent recovery via cyanidation. The BIOX® process is a proprietary technology owned by Biomin South Africa and used under licence by a number of operating mines. The BIOX® process involves bacterial oxidation in agitated tanks for pre-treatment of refractory ores and concentrates ahead of conventional cyanide leach for gold recovery. Under controlled continuous plant conditions, the number of bacterial cells and their activity is optimised to attain the highest rate of sulfide oxidation. The bacteria require a very acidic environment (pH 1.0 to 4.0), a temperature of between 30 and 45 °C, and a steady supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide for optimum growth and activity. The unusual operating conditions for the bacteria are not favourable for the growth of most other microbes, thus eliminating the need for sterility during the bacterial oxidation process. Because organic substances are toxic to the bacteria, they are non-pathogenic and incapable of causing disease. The bacteria employed in the process do not, therefore, pose a health risk to humans or any animals. The bacterial oxidation of iron sulfide minerals produces iron(III) sulfate and sulfuric acid, and in the case of arsenopyrite, arsenic acid is also produced. The arsenic is removed from the liquor by coprecipitation with the iron and sulfate in a two-stage neutralisation process. This produces a solid neutralisation precipitate containing largely calcium sulfate, basic iron(III) arsenate and iron(III) hydroxide. The iron(III) arsenate is sufficiently insoluble and stable to allow the neutralisation product to be safely disposed of on a slimes dam. The neutralisation liquor, purified to contain an acceptable level of arsenic, can be re-used in the milling, flotation or bacterial oxidation circuits.
Views: 1075 The Audiopedia
GeoMerce
 
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A project by Gionata Gatto and Giovanni Innella video by Max Itaaliander Plants absorb metals from the soil through their roots. Certain plants are particularly good at absorbing certain heavy metals such as Zinc, Copper and Nickel from the soil where they grow, and accumulating these metals in their leaves. Those plants are known as hyper-accumulators. The accumulated metals can be extracted by harvesting the plants’ leaves and burning the biomass. This process is called phyto-mining. Starting from this notion, GeoMerce rethinks the way we commonly think of agriculture. Since many of the accumulated heavy metals are listed on international markets like the London Metal Exchange, fields and crops become financial assets as sources and reservoirs of capitals. In this installation, the metal absorption process of selected plants is tracked. The amount of metal in the plants is crossed with the real-time value of the accumulated metals. As a result, the value of the plants varies constantly according to the metals’ market value and the plants’ accumulation performances. GeoMerce draws a scenario in which agriculture blurs with finance and farming decisions are made according to both financial changes and scientific progress.
Views: 982 Giovanni Innella
Lecture 35
 
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This lecture includes the degradation of hydrocarbons and other xenobiotics.
What is BIOREMEDIATION? What does BIOREMEDIATION mean? BIOREMEDIATION meaning & explanation
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ Check our NEW launched Top 10 lists website - https://topratedten.com/ ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ LIKE us on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/theaudiopediacom ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is BIOREMEDIATION? What does BIOREMEDIATION mean? BIOREMEDIATION meaning - BIOREMEDIATION pronunciation - BIOREMEDIATION definition - BIOREMEDIATION explanation - How to pronounce BIOREMEDIATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Bioremediation is a waste management technique that involves the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. According to the United States EPA, bioremediation is a “treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances”. Technologies can be generally classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site, while ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. Some examples of bioremediation related technologies are phytoremediation, bioventing, bioleaching, landfarming, bioreactor, composting, bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation. Bioremediation may occur on its own (natural attenuation or intrinsic bioremediation) or may only effectively occur through the addition of fertilizers, oxygen, etc.,that help in enhancing the growth of the pollution-eating microbes within the medium (biostimulation). For example, the US Army Corps of Engineers demonstrated that windrowing and aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils enhanced bioremediation using the technique of landfarming. Depleted soil nitrogen status may encourage biodegradation of some nitrogenous organic chemicals, and soil materials with a high capacity to adsorb pollutants may slow down biodegradation owing to limited bioavailability of the chemicals to microbes. Recent advancements have also proven successful via the addition of matched microbe strains to the medium to enhance the resident microbe population's ability to break down contaminants. Microorganisms used to perform the function of bioremediation are known as bioremediators. However, not all contaminants are easily treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. For example, heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are not readily absorbed or captured by microorganisms. A recent experiment, however, suggests that fish bones have some success absorbing lead from contaminated soil. Bone char has been shown to bioremediate small amounts of cadmium, copper, and zinc. A recent experiment, suggests that the removals of pollutants (nitrate, silicate, chromium and sulphide) from tannery wastewater were studied in batch experiments using marine microalgae. The assimilation of metals such as mercury into the food chain may worsen matters. Phytoremediation is useful in these circumstances because natural plants or transgenic plants are able to bioaccumulate these toxins in their above-ground parts, which are then harvested for removal. The heavy metals in the harvested biomass may be further concentrated by incineration or even recycled for industrial use. Some damaged artifacts at museums contain microbes which could be specified as bio remediating agents. In contrast to this situation, other contaminants, such as aromatic hydrocarbons as are common in petroleum, are relatively simple targets for microbial degradation, and some soils may even have some capacity to autoremediate, as it were, owing to the presence of autochthonous microbial communities capable of degrading these compounds. The elimination of a wide range of pollutants and wastes from the environment requires increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds, and they will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes.
Views: 33360 The Audiopedia
What is BIOSTIMULATION? What does BIOSTIMULATION mean? BIOSTIMULATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is BIOSTIMULATION? What does BIOSTIMULATION mean? BIOSTIMULATION meaning- BIOSTIMULATION pronunciation - BIOSTIMULATION definition - BIOSTIMULATION explanation - How to pronounce BIOSTIMULATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Biostimulation involves the modification of the environment to stimulate existing bacteria capable of bioremediation. This can be done by addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon (e.g. in the form of molasses). Alternatively, remediation of halogenated contaminants in anaerobic environments may be stimulated by adding electron donors (organic substrates), thus allowing indigenous microorganisms to use the halogenated contaminants as electron acceptors.EPA Anaerobic Bioremediation Technologies Additives are usually added to the subsurface through injection wells, although injection well technology for biostimulation purposes is still emerging. Removal of the contaminated material is also an option, albeit an expensive one. Biostimulation can be enhanced by bioaugmentation. This process, overall, is referred to as bioremediation and is an EPA-approved method for reversing the presence of oil or gas spills. While biostimulation is usually associated with remediation of hydrocarbon or high production volume chemical spills, it is also potentially useful for treatment of less frequently encountered contaminant spills, such as pesticides, particularly herbicides. The primary advantage of biostimulation is that bioremediation will be undertaken by already present native microorganisms that are well-suited to the subsurface environment, and are well distributed spatially within the subsurface. The primary disadvantage is that the delivery of additives in a manner that allows the additives to be readily available to subsurface microorganisms is based on the local geology of the subsurface. Tight, impermeable subsurface lithology (tight clays or other fine-grained material) make it difficult to spread additives throughout the affected area. Fractures in the subsurface create preferential pathways in the subsurface which additives preferentially follow, preventing even distribution of additives. Recently a number of products have been introduced which allow popular use of bioremediation using biostimulative methods. They may harness local bacteria using biostimulation by creating a hospitable environment for hydrocarbon-devouring microorganisms, or they may introduce foreign bacteria into the environment as a direct application to the hydrocarbon. While the jury is out as to whether either is particularly more effective than the other, prima facie consideration suggests the introduction of foreign bacteria to any environment stands a chance of mutating organisms already present and affecting the biome. Investigations to determine subsurface characteristics (such as natural groundwater velocity during ambient conditions, hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface, and lithology of the subsurface) are important in developing a successful biostimulation system. In addition, a pilot-scale study of the potential biostimulation system should be undertaken prior to full-scale design and implementation. However, some biostimulative agents may be used in chaotic surfaces such as open water and sand so long as they are , meaning that they bond exclusively to hydrocarbons, and basically sink in the water column, bonding to oil, where they then float to the water's surface, exposing the hydrocarbon to more abundant sunlight and oxygen where greater micro-organic aerobic activity can be encouraged. Some consumer-targeted biostimulants bond possess this quality, others do not.
Views: 1510 The Audiopedia
What is AQUATIC BIOMONITORING? What does AQUATIC BIOMONITORING mean?
 
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What is AQUATIC BIOMONITORING? What does AQUATIC BIOMONITORING mean? AQUATIC BIOMONITORING meaning - AQUATIC BIOMONITORING definition - AQUATIC BIOMONITORING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Aquatic biomonitoring is the science of inferring the ecological condition of rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands by examining the organisms that live there. While aquatic biomonitoring is the most common form of such biomonitoring, any ecosystem can be studied in this manner. Biomonitoring typically takes different approaches: Bioassays, where test organisms are exposed to an environment to see if mutations or deaths occur. Typical organisms used in bioassays are fish, water fleas (Daphnia), and frogs. Community assessments, also called biosurveys, where an entire community of organisms is sampled, to see what types of taxa remain. In aquatic ecosystems, these assessments often focus on invertebrates, algae, macrophytes (aquatic plants), fish, or amphibians. Rarely, other large vertebrates (reptiles, birds, and mammals) are considered as well. Online biomonitoring devices, using the ability of animals to permanently taste their environment. Different types of animals are used for that purpose either under lab or field conditions. The use of valve opening/closing activity of clams is one of the possible ways to monitor in-situ the quality of freshwater and coastal waters. Aquatic invertebrates have the longest history of use in biomonitoring programs. In typical unpolluted temperate streams of Europe and North America, certain insect taxa predominate. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and stoneflies (Plecoptera) are the most common insects in these undisturbed streams. In rivers disturbed by urbanization, agriculture, forestry, and other perturbations, flies (Diptera), and especially midges (family Chironomidae) predominate. Aquatic invertebrates are responsive to climate change. Aquatic Biomonitoring is important in monitoring marine life and their ecosystems. Monitoring aquatic life can also be beneficial in understanding land ecosystems as well. Before there were tetrapods, there were fish. These fish then evolved into tetrapods that we see today. Because of this, aquatic life still has a major impact on life on land. Aquatic biomonitoring can represent the overall health and status of the environment, detect different environmental trends and how different stressors will affect those trends, and interpret the affect of different environmental activity will have on the overall health of the environment. Pollution and general stresses to aquatic life can have a huge impact on the environment in general. The main sources of pollution to oceans, rivers, and lakes are sewage, oil spills, land runoff, littering, ocean mining, and nuclear waste. These types of pollution cause a huge upset to marine life and can endanger any species in the water or that live close to the water. When aquatic species are affected, it causes a ripple effect. Many aquatic animals are a main food source for many land animals. For example: if a specific species of fish ingest toxins and become sick, the birds that ingest that species of fish will also become sick. Then the animal that ingest that bird will also become sick. This is a problem that can be avoided by monitoring all life and conditions in different bodies of water, including fresh and salt water. The main draw back on aquatic biomonitoring is simplifying data and making data easier for all to understand. Taking data from monitoring sites and making it available for people to use in the health fields and other environmental fields can be a challenge. Mechanisms that are used for Aquatic Biomonitoring are monitoring and assessing aquatic species and ecosystems, monitoring the behavior of certain aquatic species and assessing any changes in species behavior, and looking at contaminants in the water and their effect on marine life. Water is graded on several scales. One is the water’s appearance. Is the water clear, cloudy, full of algae. Next, water is graded on its chemistry levels. How much of each enzyme or mineral located in the water is extremely important. Any changes in any of these factors can change the water’s environment overall and therefore change how life in the water is.
Views: 844 The Audiopedia
What is TRADITIONAL MINING? What does TRADITIONAL MINING mean? TRADITION MINING meaning
 
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What is TRADITIONAL MINING? What does TRADITIONAL MINING mean? TRADITION MINING meaning - TRADITIONAL MINING definition - TRADITIONAL MINING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Traditional mining, also known as old-school mining, is a mining method involving the use of simple manual tools, such as shovels, pickaxes, hammers, chisels and pans. It is done in both surface and underground environments. Until the early 1900s, traditional mining was widely used throughout the world. It is still a used mining method in some countries, including Colombia and Peru in South America and Niger in Africa. In traditional surface and underground mining, hammers and chisels with pickaxes and shovels are used. Minecarts are used to move ore and other materials in the process of mining. Pans are used for placer mining operations, such as gold panning. The traditional method of cracking rock was fire-setting, which involved heating the rock with fire to expand it. Once the rock was heated by fire it was quenched with water to break it. Fire-setting was one of the most effective rock breaking methods until 1867 when Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. Traditional mining operations have created some of the largest handmade features on Earth, such as the Big Hole open pit mine in South Africa, which is claimed to be the largest hole on Earth excavated by hand.
Views: 248 The Audiopedia
What is BIOPRECIPITATION? What does BIOPRECIPITATION mean? BIOPRECIPITATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is BIOPRECIPITATION? What does BIOPRECIPITATION mean? BIOPRECIPITATION meaning - BIOPRECIPITATION definition - BIOPRECIPITATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Bioprecipitation is the concept of rain-making bacteria and was proposed by David Sands from Montana State University before 1983. The formation of ice in clouds is required for snow and most rainfall. Dust and soot particles can serve as ice nuclei, but biological ice nuclei are capable of catalyzing freezing at much warmer temperatures. The ice-nucleating bacteria currently known are mostly plant pathogens. Recent research suggests that bacteria may be present in clouds as part of an evolved process of dispersal. Ice-nucleating proteins derived from ice-nucleating bacteria are used for snowmaking. Most known ice-nucleating bacteria are plant pathogens. These pathogens can cause freezing injury in plants. In the United States alone, it has been estimated that frost accounts for approximately $1 billion in crop damage each year. The ice-minus variant of P. syringae is a mutant, lacking the gene responsible for ice-nucleating surface protein production. This lack of surface protein provides a less favorable environment for ice formation. Both strains of P. syringae occur naturally, but recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the synthetic removal or alteration of specific genes, enabling the creation of the ice-minus strain. The introduction of an ice-minus strain of P. syringae to the surface of plants would incur competition between the strains. Should the ice-minus strain win out, the ice nucleate provided by P. syringae would no longer be present, lowering the level of frost development on plant surfaces at normal water freezing temperature (0°C). Bacteria present in clouds may have evolved to use rainfall as a means of dispersing themselves. The bacteria are found in snow, soils and seedlings in locations such as Antarctica, the Yukon Territory of Canada and the French Alps, according to Brent Christner, a microbiologist at Louisiana State University. It has been suggested that the bacteria are part of a constant feedback between terrestrial ecosystems and clouds. They may rely on the rainfall to spread to new habitats, in much the same way as plants rely on windblown pollen grains, Christner said, with this possibly a key element of the bacterial life cycle. Many ski resorts use a commercially available freeze-dried preparation of ice-nucleating proteins derived from the bacterium species Pseudomonas syringae to make snow in a snowgun.
Views: 101 The Audiopedia
What does phytostabilisation mean?
 
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What does phytostabilisation mean? A spoken definition of phytostabilisation. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phytostabilisation
What is BIOAUGMENTATION? What does BIOAUGMENTATION mean? BIOAUGMENTATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is BIOAUGMENTATION? What does BIOAUGMENTATION mean? BIOAUGMENTATION meaning - BIOAUGMENTATION definition - BIOAUGMENTATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Biological augmentation is the addition of archaea or bacterial cultures required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant. Organisms that originate in a contaminated areas may be already able to break down waste, but ineffeciently and slowly. Bioaugmentation usually requires studying the indigenous varieties present in the location to determine if biostimulation is possible. If the indigenous variety do not have the metabolic capability to perform the remediation process, exogenous varieties with such sophisticated pathways are introduced. Bioaugmentation is commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment to restart activated sludge bioreactors. Most cultures available contain microbial cultures, already containing all necessary microorganisms (B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, P. polymyxa, B. stearothermophilus, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Saccharomyces, Triphoderma, etc.). Whereas activated sludge systems are generally based on microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, rotifers and fungi capable to degrade biodegradable organic matter. There are many positive outcomes from the use of bioaugmentation like the improvement in efficiency and speed of the process of breaking down substances and the reduction of toxic particles inhibiting an area. Bioaugmentation is favored in a contaminated area because microorganisms that were originally in the environment did not accomplish their task during bioremediation when it came to breaking down chemicals in the contaminated soil. A potential reason for this can be due to environmental stresses, as well as changes in the microbial population due to mutation rates. When microorganisms are added, they are potentially more suited to the nature of the new contaminant, meanwhile the older microorganisms are similar to the older pollution and contamination. However, this is merely one of many factors; site size is also a very important determinant. In order to see whether bioaugmentation should be implemented, the overall setting must be considered. Also, some highly specialized microorganisms are not capable of adapting to certain site settings. And, availability of certain microorganism types (as used for bioremediation) may also be a problem. Although bioaugmentation may appear to be a perfect solution to contaminated soil, it can have its drawbacks. For example, the wrong type of bacteria can result in potentially clogged aquifers, or the remediation result may be incomplete or unsatisfactory. At sites where soil and groundwater are contaminated with chlorinated ethenes, such as tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, bioaugmentation can be used to ensure that the in situ microorganisms can completely degrade these contaminants to ethylene and chloride, which are non-toxic. Bioaugmentation is typically only applicable to bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, although there are emerging cultures with the potential to biodegrade other compounds including BTEX, chloroethanes, chloromethanes, and MTBE. The first reported application of bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethenes was at Kelly Air Force Base, TX. Bioaugmentation is typically performed in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation) to achieve geochemical conditions in groundwater that favor the growth of the dechlorinating microorganisms in the bioaugmentation culture. Including more microbes into an environment is beneficial to the speed of the cleanup duration. The interaction and competitions of two compounds influence the performance that a microorganism, original or new, could have. This can be tested by placing a soil that favors the new microbes into the area and then looking at the performance. The results will show if the new microorganism can perform well enough in that soil with other microorganisms. This helps to determine the correct amount of microbes and indigenous substances that are needed in order to optimize performance and create a co-metabolism. 'Bioaugmentation Cultures.....
Views: 2101 The Audiopedia
What is BIOREPORTER? What does BIOREPORTER mean? BIOREPORTER meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is BIOREPORTER? What does BIOREPORTER mean? BIOREPORTER meaning -BIOREPORTER pronunciation - BIOREPORTER definition - BIOREPORTER explanation - How to pronounce BIOREPORTER? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Bioreporters are intact, living microbial cells that have been genetically engineered to produce a measurable signal in response to a specific chemical or physical agent in their environment. Bioreporters contain two essential genetic elements, a promoter gene and a reporter gene. The promoter gene is turned on (transcribed) when the target agent is present in the cell’s environment. The promoter gene in a normal bacterial cell is linked to other genes that are then likewise transcribed and then translated into proteins that help the cell in either combating or adapting to the agent to which it has been exposed. In the case of a bioreporter, these genes, or portions thereof, have been removed and replaced with a reporter gene. Consequently, turning on the promoter gene now causes the reporter gene to be turned on. Activation of the reporter gene leads to production of reporter proteins that ultimately generate some type of a detectable signal. Therefore, the presence of a signal indicates that the bioreporter has sensed a particular target agent in its environment. Originally developed for fundamental analysis of factors affecting gene expression, bioreporters were early on applied for the detection of environmental contaminants and have since evolved into fields as diverse as medical diagnostics, precision agriculture, food safety assurance, process monitoring and control, and bio-microelectronic computing. Their versatility stems from the fact that there exist a large number of reporter gene systems that are capable of generating a variety of signals. Additionally, reporter genes can be genetically inserted into bacterial, yeast, plant, and mammalian cells, thereby providing considerable functionality over a wide range of host vectors.
Views: 196 The Audiopedia
Biomining | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomining 00:01:42 1 History of biomining 00:03:20 2 Current techniques 00:06:23 3 Overview 00:13:25 4 Processing methods 00:19:18 5 Bioremediation 00:20:40 6 Future prospects Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8186097391307136 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biomining is a technique of extracting metals from ores and other solid materials typically using prokaryotes or fungi. These organisms secrete different organic compounds that chelate metals from the environment and bring it back to the cell where they are typically used to coordinate electrons. It was discovered in the mid 1900s that microorganisms use metals in the cell. Some microbes can use stable metals such as iron, copper, zinc, and gold as well as unstable atoms such as uranium and thorium. Companies can now grow large chemostats of microbes that are leaching metals from their media, these vats of culture can then be transformed into many marketable metal compounds. Biomining is an environmentally friendly technique compared to typical mining. Mining releases many pollutants while the only chemicals released from biomining is any metabolites or gasses that the bacteria secrete. The same concept can be used for bioremediation models. Bacteria can be inoculated into environments contaminated with metals, oils, or other toxic compounds. The bacteria can clean the environment by absorbing these toxic compounds to create energy in the cell. Microbes can achieve things at a chemical level that could never be done by humans. Bacteria can mine for metals, clean oil spills, purify gold, and use radioactive elements for energy.
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Bioaugmentation
 
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Addition of bacterial culture to speed up rate of degradation
What does bioconcentration mean?
 
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What does bioconcentration mean? A spoken definition of bioconcentration. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bioconcentration Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
What does biostimulation mean?
 
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What does biostimulation mean? A spoken definition of biostimulation. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biostimulation
gold and copper electrowinning from a gold plant waste solutions
 
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More Details : http://wwa.stonecrushersolution.org/solutions/solutions.html we will provide a professional answer and quality of services. If this video does not meet your needs I apologize here. Visit Website: http://www.gospellightbaptistschool.com Contact Us For Help: http://www.gospellightbaptistschool.com/chat.html E, waste: Annual gold, silver 'deposits' in new high, tech A staggering 320 tons of gold and more than 7,500 tons of silver are now used annually to make PCs, cell phones, tablet computers and other new electronic and recovery of gold in ore flotation tail plant waste suppliers of electrowinning equipment for flotation tail plant waste. Gold ore for Froth Flotation of Copper Copper and Gold Flotation Environmental Impacts of Mining and Smelting, Occupational Lead and Mercury Emissions from Mining. Global releases of lead from smelting and refining nonferrous metals (e.g. gold, lead, zinc, copper) total over 28,000 metric Gold Mining Process Development ? Denver Mineral Engineers Copper/gold ores that require uneconomically waste rock. A common recovery plant is often employed is widely used for recovery of gold from cyanide solutions. Gold Chemistry Leaching Processes CHEMISTRY of the CIP Covellite + water + cyanide ? copper cyanide Compounds of gold can dissolve slowly in cyanide solutions. Gold tellurides dissolve Gold Plant Operators Course BBC, GCSE Bitesize: The future of copper Phytomining, bioleaching and scrap iron. Some plants absorb copper compounds through their roots. They concentrate these compounds as a result of this. Gold Leaching using Thiourea, Mining & Metallurgy The much higher leaching time will reduce the investment for a new processing plant. The thiourea copper in thiourea leach solutions Electrowinning of Gold Pollution Prevention in the Plating Process Cyanide copper plating requires a two, stage waste treatment of gold plating solutions are heavy metals in the wastewater treatment plant, C D Waste Jaw Crusher Design gold and copper electrowinning from a gold plant waste solutions; crusher is jaw crusher which a core R & D crushing plant and construction waste jaw iron precipitation of gold solutions, Crusher Machine and iron precipitation of gold solutions. How do i Precipitate gold from aqua regia solution by Jun 26, 2006 · by using ferrous sulphate for precipitation of gold Copper, Mineral Fact Sheets, Australian Mines Atlas Other important discoveries include the Northparkes copper, gold to the electrowinning plant to recover the copper. of ore mineral from the waste ELECTROWINNING APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR RECOVERING USEFUL Abstract: An electrowinning apparatus and method are provided. The electrowinning apparatus includes: an electrolytic cell including a body portion which has an Melis Engineering Uranium Waste Experience, Mining PROJECT . ACTIVITY . Uranium Mine Wastes, Process development and design of contaminated minewater. Saskatchewan . treatment process. Saskatchewan, Canada Newmont Mining, Mining Education, The Mining Process Email Alerts You may automatically receive Newmont Mining Corporation financial information by email. Please enter your email address below and choose your options Smelting, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Where and how iron smelting was discovered is widely debated, and remains uncertain due to the significant lack of production finds. Nevertheless, there is some Metal Recovery Plant, Future Industrial Services FIS operate a metal recovery plant for the supply and recycling of chemical etchant solutions used in the Electronics Industry (PCB manufacture) waste water management in gold mine copper tailing dam Ore Process waste water management in gold mine copper tailing dam; mine waste solutions have plagued the gold graphite mining process plant Cyanide Chemistry, International Cyanide Management Code This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition; safe buy Codeine order without a prescription self contained gold mining wash plant south africa mini gold processing plant, YouTube. Aug 31, 2013 Portable placer gold processing plants for alluvial mining, screen deck classifying jigs Industrial NSC Hydrometallurgical Precious Metals Recycle In the processing of many concentrates and ores such as copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt hydrometallurgical methodologies are becoming more prominent. copper recovery from copper solution equipment Copper Recovery. Contact Copper Recovery today to begin a recycling program or schedule another you want to know about the turn key equipment
Views: 419 Dacuk Porty
Leaching (chemistry) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaching_(chemistry) 00:01:46 1 Leaching processes for biological substances 00:03:16 2 Leaching processes for inorganic and organic materials 00:04:05 3 Shrinking-core model 00:05:48 4 Environmentally friendly leaching 00:06:54 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9803584487349288 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process. In the chemical processing industry, leaching has a variety of commercial applications, including separation of metal from ore using acid, and sugar from sugar beets using hot water. Another term for this is lixiviation, or the extraction of a soluble particle from its constituent parts. In a typical leaching operation, the solid mixture to be separated consists of particles, inert insoluble carrier A and solute B. The solvent, C, is added to the mixture to selectively dissolve B. The overflow from the stage is free of solids and consists of only solvent C and dissolved B. The underflow consists of slurry of liquid of similar composition in the liquid overflow and solid carrier A. In an ideal leaching equilibrium stage, all the solute is dissolved by the solvent; none of the carrier is dissolved. The mass ratio of the solid to liquid in the underflow is dependent on the type of equipment used and properties of the two phases. Leaching is the process by which inorganic, organic contaminants or radionuclides are released from the solid phase into the water phase under the influence of mineral dissolution, desorption, complexation processes as affected by pH, redox, dissolved organic matter and (micro)biological activity. The process itself is universal, as any material exposed to contact with water will leach components from its surface or its interior depending on the porosity of the material considered. One such reaction is: Ag2S + 4NaCN → 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Na2S
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